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  1. ►War(1754-1762) between Britain and France that ended with British domination of North America; known in America as the French and Indian War. Its high expense laid the foundation for conflict that would lead to the American Revolution.


    Pontiac's Rebellion (p. 148) 
    Boston Massacre (p. 160) 
    Seven Years' War (p. 142)
    Seven Years' War (p. 142)
  2. ► A coordinated uprising of Native American tribes in 1763 in the Northwest after the end of the Seven Years' War 
    heightened Britain's determination to create a boundary between Americans and Indians, embodied in the Proclamation of 1763.


    Boston Massacre (p. 160) 
    First Continental Congress (p. 164) 
    Pontiac's Rebellion (p. 148) 
    Seven Years' War (p. 142)
    Pontiac's Rebellion (p. 148)
  3. ► 1764 British law that decreased the duty on French molasses, making it more attractive for shippers to obey the law, and at the same time raised penalties for smuggling. 
    regulated trade, but its primary purpose was to raise revenue.


    Stamp Act (p. 151)
    Sugar (Revenue) Act (p. 151) 
    Declaratory Act 
    Townshend duties (p. 157)
    Sugar (Revenue) Act (p. 151)
  4. ► The theory that all British subjects were represented in Parliament, whether they had elected representatives in that body or not. American colonists  rejected the theory, arguing that only direct representatives had the right to tax the colonists.


    Declaratory Act 
    virtual representation 
    Coercive (Intolerable) Acts
  5. virtual representation
  6. ► 1766 law issued by Parliament to assert Parliament's unassailable right to legislate for British colonies "in all cases whatsoever," putting Americans on notice that the simultaneous repeal of the Stamp Act changed nothing in the imperial powers of Britain.


    virtual representation (p. 152 
    Declaratory Act (p. 155) 

    Townshend duties (p. 157)
    committees of correspondence (p. 162)
    Declaratory Act (p. 155)
  7. ► New duties (established by the Revenue Act of 1767) on tea, glass, lead, paper, and painters' colors imported into the colonies.
    led to boycotts and heightened tensions between Britain and the American colonies.




    Sugar (Revenue) Act (p. 151) 
    Stamp Act (p. 151) 

    Townshend duties (p. 157 
    Tea Act of 1773
    Townshend duties (p. 157)
  8. ► March 1770 incident in which British soldiers fired on an American crowd, killing five. became a rallying point for colonists who increasingly saw the British government as tyrannical and illegitimate.


    Pontiac's Rebellion (p. 148) 
    committees of correspondence
     Boston Massacre (p. 160)
    Boston Massacre (p. 11
  9. ► A communications network established among towns in Massachusetts and also among colonial capital towns in 1772-1773 to provide for rapid dissemination of news about important political developments.  politicized ordinary townspeople, sparking a revolutionary language of rights and duties.


    virtual representation (p. 152) 
    Coercive (Intolerable) Acts (p. 163) 
    committees of correspondence (p. 162) 
    inttal Cngress > (p. 1(
    committees of correspondence (p. 162)
  10. ► British act that lowered the existing tax on tea to entice boycotting Americans to buy it. Resistance led to the passage of the Coercive Acts and imposition of military rule in Massachusetts.


    Tea Act of 1773 (p. 162) 
    Coercive (Intolerable) Acts (p. 163) 
    Declaratory Act (p. 155) 
    Sugar (Revenue) Act (p. 151)
    Tea Act of 1773 (p. 162)
  11. ► Four British acts of 1774 meant to punish Massachusetts for the destruction of three shiploads of tea. they led to open rebellion in the northern colonies.


    Sugar (Revenue) Act (p. 151) 
    Stamp Act (p. 151) 
    Coercive (Intolerable) Acts (p. 163) 
    committees of correspondence (p. 162)
    Coercive (Intolerable) Acts (p. 163)
  12. ► September 1774 gathering of colonial delegates in Philadelphia to discuss the crisis precipitated by the Coercive Acts. The congress produced a declaration of rights and an agreement to impose a limited boycott of trade with Britain.


    First Continental Congress (p. 164) 
    Second Continental Congress (p. 164) 
    committees of correspondence (p. 162) virtual representation (p. 152)
    First Continental Congress (p. 164)
  13. ► 1765 British law imposing a tax on all paper used for official documents, for the purpose of raising revenue. Widespread resistance to the act led to its repeal 1766.


    Sugar (Revenue) Act (p. 151) 
    Stamp Act (p. 151) 
    Townshend duties (p. 157) 
    Tea Act of 1773 (p. 162)
    Stamp Act (p. 151)
  14. ► Legislative body that governed the United States from May 1775 through the war's duration. It established an army, created own money, and declared independence once all hope for a peaceful reconciliation with Britain was gone.




    Continental army (p. 175) 
    Second Continental Congress (p. 174) 
    Ladies Association (p. 186) 
    Common Sense (p. 176)
    Second Continental Congress (p. 174)
  15. created in June 1775 by the Second Continental Congress to oppose the British. Virginian George Washington, commander in chief, had the task of turning local militias and untrained volunteers into a disciplined army.


    Continental army (p. 175) 
    Second Continental Congress (p. 174) 
    loyalists (p. 186)
    Continental army (p. 175)
  16. ► Second battle of the war, on June 16,1775, involving a massive British attack on New England militia units.  The militiamen finally yielded the hill, but not before inflicting heavy casualties on the British.


    battle of Oriskany (p. 191) 
    battle of Saratoga (p. 191) 
    battle of Yorktown 
    battle of Bunker Hill (p. 176)
    battle of Bunker Hill (p. 176)
  17. ► A pamphlet written by Thomas Paine in 1776 that laid out the case for independence. In it, Paine rejected monarchy, advocating its replacement with republican government based on the consent of the people. The pamphlet influenced public opinion throughout the colonies.


    Declaration of Independence (p. 179) 
    Common Sense (p. 176) 
    Second Continental Congress (P. 174) 
    Treaty (Peace) of Paris, 1783 (p. 199)
    Common Sense (p. 176)
  18. ► A document containing philosophical principles and a of grievances that declared separation from Britain.
    ending a period of intense debate with moderates still hoping to reconcile with Britain.


    Declaration of Independence (p. 179) 
    Common Sense (p. 176) 
    Treaty (Peace) of Paris, 1783 (p. 199)
    Declaration of Independence (p. 179)
  19. ► First major engagement of the new Continental army, defending against 45,000 British troops newly arrived.  The Continentals retreated, with high casualties and many taken prison*


    battle of Bunker Hill (p. 176) 
    battle of Long Island (p. 182) 
    battle of Oriskany (p. 191) 
    battle of Saratoga (p. 191)
    battle of Long Island (p. 182)
  20. organization in Philadelphia that collected substantial money donations in 1780 to give to the Continental troops as a token of the citizens' appreciation.


    Second Continental Congress (P- 174) 
    Ladies Association (p. 186) 
    loyalists (p. 186) 
    Continental army (p. 175)
    Ladies Association (p. 186)
  21. ► Colonists who remained loyal to Britain during the Revolutionary War, probably numbering around one-fifth of the population in 1776. Colonists remained loyal to Britain for many reasons.  Could be found in every region of country


    Ladies Association (p. 186) 
    Continental army (p. 175) 
    loyalists (p. 186)
    loyalists (p. 186)
  22. * A punishing defeat for Americans in a ravine named.  Mohawk and Seneca Indians ambushed German American militiamen aided by allied Oneida warriors, and 500 on the Revolutionary side were killed.


    battle of Oriskany (p. 191) 
    battle of Saratoga (p. 191) 
    cattle of Yorktown (p. 199) 
    battle of Bunker Hill (p. 176)
    battle of Oriskany (p-191)
  23. ► A two-stage battle ending with the decisive defeat and surrender of British general ohn Burgoyne on October 17, 1777. This victory convinced France to throw its official support to the American side in the war.


    battle of Yorktown (p. 199) 
    battle of Saratoga (p. 191) 
    battle of Oriskany (p. 191)
    battle of Saratoga (p. 191)
  24. ► October 1781 battle that sealed American victory in the Revolutionary War. American troops and a French fleet trapped le British army under the command of General Charles Cornwallis


    battle of Oriskany (p. 191) 
    battle of Saratoga (p. 191) 
    battle of Bunker Hill (p. 176) 
    battle of Yorktown (p. 199)
    battle of Yorktown (p. 199)
  25. ► September 3, 1783 acknowledged America's independence, set its boundaries, and promised the quick withdrawal of British troops from American soil. It failed to recognize Indians as players in in the  conflict


    Treaty (Peace) of Paris, 1783 p. 199) 
    Common Sense 
    Declaration of Independence (p. 179) Second Continental CongreSS
    Treaty (Peace) of Paris, 1783
  26. ► The written document defining the structure of the government from 1781 to 1788.  Union was a confederation of equal states, with no executive (president) and with limited powers, existing mainly to foster a common defense.


    Articles of Confederation (p. 206) 
    Northwest Ordinance (p. 219) 
    New Jersey Plan (p. 224) 
    Declaration of Independence (P-179)
    Articles of Confederation (p. 206]
  27. ► A social philosophy that embraced representative institutions (as opposed to monarchy), a citizenry attuned to civic values above private interests, and a virtuous community in which individuals work to promote the public good.


    Federalists (p. 227) 
    Antifederalists (p. 229) 
    republicanism (p. 210) 
    democracy (p. 211)
    republicanism (p. 210)
  28. ► Laws passed in five northern states that balanced slaves' civil rights against slaveholders' last property rights by providing a multistage process for freeing slaves, distinguishing persons already alive from those not yet born and providing benchmark dates when freedom would arrive for each group.


    Articles of Confederation (p. 206) 
    gradual emancipation (p. 213)
    Newburgh Conspiracy (p. 216)
     three-fifths clause (p. 225)
    gradual emancipation (p. 213)
  29. ► A bogus threatened coup staged by Continental army officers and leaders in the Continental Congress in 1782-1783. They hoped that a forceful demand for military back pay and pensions would create pressure for stronger taxation powers. General Washington defused the threat. 


    Virginia Plan (p. 224) 
    New Jersey Plan (p. 224) 
    Newburgh Conspiracy (p. 216) 
    Northwest Ordinance (p. 219)
    Newburgh Conspiracy
  30. ►1784 treaty with the Iroquois Confederacy that established the primacy of the American confederation (and not states) to negotiate with Indians and that resulted in large land cessions in the Ohio Country (northwestern Pennsylvania). Tribes not present disavowed the treaty.


    Treaty (Peace) of Paris, 1783 (p. 199) 
    three-fifths clause (p. 225) 
    Treaty of Fort Stanwix (p. 217) 
    Northwest Ordinance (p. 219)
    Treaty of Fort Stanwix (p. 217)
  31. ► Land act of 1787 that established a three-stage process by which settled territories would become states. It also banned slavery.
    guaranteed that western lands with white populations would not become colonial dependencies. 


    Newburgh Conspiracy (p. 216) 
    gradual emancipation (p. 213) 
    Treaty (Peace) of Paris, 1783 (p.199) 
    Northwest Ordinance (p. 219)
    Northwest Ordinance (p. 219)
  32. ► Uprising (1786-1787) led by farmers centered in western Massachusetts. Dissidents protested taxation policies of the eastern elites who controlled the state's government.  caused leaders throughout the country to worry about the confederation's ability to handle civil disorder.



    gradual emancipation (p. 213) 
    Shays's Rebellion (p. 222) 
    battle of Bunker Hill (p. 176) 
    battle of Long Island (p. 182)
    Shays's Rebellion (p. 222)
  33. ► Plan drafted by James Madison and presented at the opening of the Philadelphia constitutional convention. Proposing a powerful three-branch government, with representation in both houses of the congress tied to population, this plan eclipsed the voice of small states in national government. 




    New Jersey Plan (p. 224) 
    Virginia Plan (p. 224) 
    Articles of Confederation (p. 206) 
    Declaration of Independence (p. 179)
    Virginia Plan (p. 224)
  34. ► Alternative plan drafted by delegates from small states, retaining the confederation's single-house congress with one vote per state. proposed enhanced congressional powers, including the right to tax, regulate trade, and use force on unruly state governments. 



    Virginia Plan (p. 224) 
    New Jersey Plan (p. 224) 
    Articles of Confederation (p. 206) 
    republicanism (p. 210)
    New Jersey Plan (p. 224)
  35. in the Constitution stipulating that all free persons plus "three-fifths of all other Persons" would constitute the numerical base for apportioning both representation and taxation. The clause tacitly acknowledged he existence of slavery in the States. 



    three-fifths clause (p. 225) 
    Virginia Plan (p. 224) 
    New Jersey Plan (p. 224) 
    Articles of Confederation (p. 206)
    three-fifths clause (p. 225)
  36. ► Originally the term for the supporters of the ratification of the U.S. Constitution in 1787-1788. In the 1790s, it became the name for one of the two dominant political groups that emerged during that decade. Supported Britain in foreign policy and commercial interests at home. 
    included George Washington, Alexander Hamilton, and John Adams. 



    Antifederalists (p. 229) 
    Federalists (p. 227) 
    republicanism (p. 210)
    Federalists (p. 227)
  37. ► Opponents of the ratification of the Constitution. feared that a powerful and distant central government would be out of touch with the needs of citizens. They also complained that the Constitution failed to guarantee individual liberties in a bill of rights. 


    Federalists (p. 227) 
    Antifederalists (p. 229) 
    republicanism (p. 210) 
    Liberals (p. 220)
    Antifederalists (p. 229)
  38. ► The first ten amendments to the Constitution, officially ratified by 1791. The First through Eighth Amendments dealt with individual liberties, and the Ninth and Tenth concerned the boundary between federal and e authority. 



    Declaration of Independence (p. 179) 
    Articles of Confederation (p. 206) 
    Bill of Rights (p. 237)
    Bill of Rights (p. 237)
  39. ► Hamilton's January 1790 report recommending that the national debt be funded — but not repaid immediately — at full value. Hamilton's goal was to make the new country creditworthy, not debt-free. Critics of his plan complained that it would benefit speculators. 


    Treaty of Greenville (p. 249) 
    Report on Manufactures (p. 244) 
    Report on Public Credit (p. 242)
    Report on Public Credit (p. 242)
  40. ► A proposal by Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton in 1791 calling for the federal government to encourage domestic manufacturers with subsidies while imposing tariffs on foreign imports. Congress initially rejected the measure. 



    Report on Public Credit (p. 242) 
    Report on Manufactures (p. 244) 
    Haitian Revolution (p. 252)
    Report on Manufactures (p. 244)
  41. ► July 1794 uprising by farmers in western Pennsylvania in response to enforcement of an unpopular excise tax.
    The federal government responded with a military presence that caused dissidents to disperse before blood was shed. 


    Haitian Revolution (p. 252) 
    Whiskey Rebellion (p. 245) 
    Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions (p. 256)
    Whiskey Rebellion (p. 245)
  42. ► 1795 treaty between the United States and various Indian tribes in Ohio. The United States gave the tribes treaty goods valued at $25,000. In exchange, the Indians ceded most of Ohio to the Americans. The treaty brought only temporary peace to the region. 



    Treaty of Greenville (p. 249) 
    Jay Treaty (p. 251) 
    Alien and Sedition Acts (p. 255) 
    Trick or Treaty (p. 256)
    Treaty of Greenville (p. 249)
  43. ► 1795 treaty between the United States and Britain, It secured limited trading rights in the West Indies but failed to ensure timely removal of British forces from western forts and reimbursement for slaves removed by the British after the Revolution. 

    Treaty of Greenville (p. 249) 
    Jay Treaty (p. 251)
    Jay Treaty (p. 251)
  44. ► The 1791-1804 conflict involving diverse participants and armies from three European countries. At its end became a free, independent, black-run country. 



    Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions (p. 25< 
    Haitian Revolution (p. 252) 
    Whiskey Rebellion (p. 245)
    Haitian Revolution (p. 252)
  45. ► Originally the term for the supporters of the ratification of ne U.S. Constitution in 1787- 1788. In the 1790s, it became the ame for one of the two dominant political groups that emerged during that decade. 
    leaders of the 1790s supported Britain in foreign policy and commercial interests at home. 


    Federalists (p. 253) 
    Republicans (p. 253) 
    Democrats (p. 254)
    Federalists (p. 253)
  46. One of the two dominant political groups that emerged in the 1790s supported the revolutionaries in France and worried about monarchical at home. 
    included Thomas Jefferson and James Madison. 



    Republicans (p. 253) 
    Federalists (p. 253)
    Republicans (p. 253)
  47. A 1797 incident in which American negotiators in France were rebuffed for refusing to pay a substantial bribe. The incident ed the United States into an undeclared war with France, known as the Quasi-War, which itensified antagonism between Federalists and Republicans. 


    XYZ affair (p. 255) 
    Alien and Sedition Acts (p. 255) 
    Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions (p. 256) 
    Whiskey Rebellion (p. 245)
    XYZ affair (p. 255)
  48. ► 1798 laws passed to suppress political dissent. criminalized conspiracy and criticism of government leaders. 
    extended the waiting period for citizenship and empowered the president to deport or imprison without trial any foreigner deemed a danger. 


    Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions (p. 256] 

    XYZ affair (p. 255) 
    Alien and Sedition Acts (p. 255)
    \Whiskey Rebellion (p. 245)
    Alien and Sedition Acts (p. 255)
  49. ► 1798 resolutions condemning the Alien and Sedition Acts submitted to the federal government.  The resolutions tested the idea that state legislatures could judge the constitutionality of federal laws and nullify the 

    Bill of Rights (p. 237) 
    Haitian Revolution (p. 252) 
    Alien and Sedition Acts (p. 255) 
    Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions (p. 256)
    Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
  50. ► 1803 Supreme Court case that established the concept of judicial review in finding that parts of the Judiciary Act of 1789 were in conflict with the Constitution. The Supreme Court assumed legal authority to overrule acts of other branches of the government. 



    kramer vs kramer  (p. 289)
    roe vs wade  (p. 280)
    Marbury v. Madison (p. 264) 
    Simpson vs. Brown (p.255)
    Marbury v. Madison (p. 264)
  51. ► 1803 purchase of French territory west of the Mississippi River that stretched from the Gulf of Mexico to Canada. 

    Louisiana Purchase (p. 268) 
    Texas Purchase (p.268)
    Missouri Purchase (p. 267)
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    Louisiana Purchase (p. 268)
  52. ► 1804-1806 expedition that explored the trans-Mississippi West for the U.S. government. The expedition's mission was scientific, political, and geographic. 


    Lewis and Clark expedition (p. 270) 
    Ford Expedition (p. 270)
    Chevy Expedition (p.270)
    Lewis and Clark expedition (p. 270)
  53. ► A British naval practice of seizing sailors on American ships under the claim that they were deserters from the British navy. Some 2,500 American men were taken by force into service, a grievance that helped propel the United States to declare war on Britain. 

    impressment (p. 273) 
    Embargo Act of 1807 (p. 273) 
    feme covert (p. 280) 
    impress me (p.273)
    impressment (p. 273)
  54. ► Act of Congress that prohibited U.S. ships from traveling to foreign ports and effectively banned overseas trade in an attempt to deter Britain from halting U.S. ships at sea. The embargo caused grave hardships or Americans engaged in overseas commerce. 


    Hartford Convention (p. 279) 
    battle of Tippecanoe (p. 276) 
    Missouri Compromise (p. 286) 
    Embargo Act of 1807 (p. 273)
    Embargo Act of 1807 (p. 273)
  55. ► An attack on Shawnee Indians at Prophetstown.  American forces headed by William Henry Harrison, Indiana's territorial governor. Tenskwatawa, the Prophet, fled with his followers. Tecumseh, his brother, deepened his resolve to make war on the United States. 

    battle of Tippecanoe (p. 276) 
    Creek War (p. 278) 
    battle of New Orleans (p. 278}
    battle of Tippecanoe (p. 276)
  56. ► Young men newly elected to the Congress of 1811 who were eager for war against Britain in order to end impressments, fight Indians, and expand into neighboring British territory. Leaders included Henry Clay of Kentucky and John C. Calhoun of South Caroling 

    feme covert (p. 280) 
    Federalists (p. 253) 
    Republicans (p. 253) 
    War Hawks (p. 276)
    War Hawks (p. 276)
  57. ► Part of the War of 1812 the Mississippi Territory and Tennessee militiamen. General defeated the Creeks at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend in 1814, forcing them to sign away much of their lar 


    Whiskey Rebellion (p. 245) 
    Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions (p. 25€ 
    Creek War (p. 278) 
    Missouri Compromise (p. 286)
    Creek War (p. 278)
  58. ► The final battle in the War of 1812, fought and won by General Andrew Jackson and his militiamen against the much larger British army.  The celebrated battle made no difference since the peace had already been negotiated. 


    battle of Tippecanoe (p. 276) 
    battle of New Orleans (p. 278) 
    Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions (p. 256) 
    Whiskey Rebellion (p. 245)
    battle of New Orleans (p. 278)
  59. ► A secret meeting of New England Federalist politicians held in late 1814 to discuss onstitutional changes to reduce the South's political power and hus help block policies that ijured northern commercial 


    Missouri Compromise (p. 286) 
    Hartford Convention (p. 279) 
    War Hawks (p. 276)
    Hartford Convention
  60. ► Legal doctrine grounded in British common law that held that a wife's civic life was subsumed by her husband's. Married women lacked independence to own property, make contracts, c keep wages earned. The doctrine shaped women's status in the early Republic


    Missouri Compromise (p. 286) 
    Hartford Convention (p. 279) 
    feme covert (p. 280) 
    impressment (p. 273)
    feme covert (p. 280)
  61. ► 1820 congressional compromise engineered by Henry Clay.  that paired the entrance into the Union as a slave state with Maine's entrance as a free state. The compromise also established southern border as the permanent line dividing slave from free states.  


    Missouri Compromise (p. 286) 
    Hartford Convention (p. 279) 
    impressment (p. 273) 
    Embargo Act of 1807 (p. 273)
    Missouri Compromise (p. 286)

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