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The freedom to participate in the life of the community
Supreme Court is allowed to strike down laws that single out a race or ethnicity, unless there’s a strong reason for doing it
Requires the governments to have an important state purpose for any laws that single out sex or gender
An agreement allowing southern territories west of the Mississippi open to slavery while closing northern territories
19th century movement demanding an immediate and unconditional end to slavery
compromise of 1850
- Compromise allowing territories to vote on whether they would be slave
- or free. Also including a law that forced northerners to return African Americans
- into bondage, and allowed California to enter the union as a free state.
dred scott v. sanford
A slave named Dred Scot sued for freedom, when returning to Missouri after living in a free territory. A Supreme Court decision stating the black men couldn’t be citizens under the U.S. Constitution
President Abraham Lincoln declares the slaves in all rebel states free.
equal protection of the laws
the 14th Amendment requires equal treatment for all citizens
- A failed effort pursued by Northerners and Southerners to rebuild the
- South and establish racial equality after the Civil War
Voters must be literate but really to restrict black suffrage
Plessy v. ferguson
1896 Supreme Court permitting racial segregation
Discrimination established by laws
Subtle forms of discrimination existing without a legal basis
brown v. board of education
The Supreme Court case striking down segregated schools as unconstitutional.
Activists who rode buses to protest segregation on interstate bus lines
Senators simply talking and refusing to permit a vote. Ends only when 60 senators vote for cloture.
civil rights act of 1964
- Landmark legislation forbidding state and local governments to discriminate. Empowered the federals government to withhold funds from
- segregated schools
The effect of some policies discriminating even if it’s not consciously intended
Integrating public schools by mixing students from different neighborhoods
new jim crow
The idea that penal policy unjustly targets black men and creates disadvantages for blacks by stripping them of full citizenship rights
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