# Flashcards-Statistics.txt

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1. Name the Scales / Levels of Measurement (Least to Most Sophisticated)
• "1. Nominal Scale [Mode]- Simply name variable in to discreet categories and count
• 2. Ordinal Level [Median] - reflects magnitudes; you can rank variables; LIKERT Scales used for ranking
• 3. Interval Scale [Median] - reflects magnitudes; equal intervals with arbitrary zero point
• 4. Ratio Scale [Median] - reflects magnitude; equal intervals with absolute zero point"
2. Abcissa
Refers to the x-axis or the values of the variable
3. Arbitrary (True) Zero Point
Complete absence of the variable of interest
4. Average
• "Measures of Central Tendency;
• can be the mean, the median, and the mode;
• is the one value that best represents an entire group of scores"
5. Bar Graphs are the best representation of what?
• "Nominal Level/Scale
• Mode"
6. Cardinal Level of Measurement
• 3. Interval Scale [Median] - reflects magnitudes; equal intervals with arbitrary zero point
• 4. Ratio Scale [Median] - reflects magnitude; equal intervals with absolute zero point
7. Collection of Data
Data set or just data
8. Descriptive Statistics
• are used to organize and describe the characteristics of a collection of data
• Samples or populations
9. Directional Research Hypothesis
Reflects a difference between groups and the direction of the difference is specified
10. Define, Formula
A set of mathematical operators that performs a particular mathematical task
11. Formula: Mean
x bar equals x divided by N (the total count of items)
12. Formula: Range
• r equals the highest score minus the lowest score in the distribution
• r = h - l
13. Formula: Standard Deviation
14. Function
A predefined formula
15. Histograms best represent
• Cardinal level Scales of Measurement
• Interval Scale (median)
• Ratio Scale (median)
16. Hypotheses
Educated Guess
17. Inferential Statistics
• Used to make inferences from a smaller group of data to a possibly larger one
• logic & procedures for evaluating risks of inference based on samples of the population
18. Levels of Measurement
Same as Scales of Measurement
19. Mean Deviation
• Mean absolute Deviation
• the average of the absolute value of the deviations from the mean
20. Mean or the X-Bar
• The sum of all the values in a group divided by the number ofvalues in that group
• Is sensitive to extreme scores
• Is skewed in the dierction of the extreme score and therefore you would use the median
21. Measurement
The process of assigning a value or a score to the variable of interest
22. Measures of Central Tendency
• the Average
• a single summary value reflecting where the bulk of the data cluster [mode, median, mean]
23. The Median
• The Midpoint
• the point which one half, or 50%, of the scores fall above and one half, or 50%, fall below
24. Mode
The value that occurs most frequently
25. Null Hypothesis
statements of equality demonstrated by the following real-life null hypotheses taken from a variety of popular social and behavioral science journals.
26. One-tailed Test
(reflecting a directional hypothesis) posits a difference in a particular direction, such as when we hypothesize that Group 1 will score higher than Group 2
27. Ordinant
Refers to the y-axis or the frequency
28. Parameter
a measurable characteristic of a population; typically it is the mean
29. Pie charts best represent
Nominal Scale/Level (Mode)
30. Population
the larger group of data that the sample is taken from; a complete set of measurements having some common observable characteristics
31. Properties of Scale
• Magnitude of variable
• Equal intervals
• 1. Arbitrary Zero Point
• 2. Absolute (True) Zero Point
32. Range
a collection of cells
33. Research hypothesis
a definite statement that there is a relationship between variables
34. Sample
the smaller group of data that is a portion, or a subset, of a population; a subset of the population
35. Sampling error
a measure of how well a sample approximates the characteristics of a population
36. Standard Deviation
represents the average amount of variability in a set of scores
37. Statistics
describes a set of tools and techniques used for describing, organizing, and interpreting information or data; a measurable characteristic of a sample
38. Symbol: sigma
find the sum of what follows
39. Symbol: =/
means "is not equal to"
Square root sign,
41. Symbol: N
population or total number of cases ; noun
42. Symbol: >
means "is greater than"
43. Symbol: H
represents the symbol for the first research hypotheses
44. Symbol: n
sample size, noun
45. Symbol: s
standard deviation
46. Symbol: X
each individual score
47. Symbol: X bar
the mean of all the scores
48. Symmetry or Skewed distribution
Symmetry/Bell Shaped Curve = Reasonably Symmetrical
49. Skewed
• - Negative skew - mean is to the left of the median
• - Positive skew - mean is to the right of the median
50. Two-tailed test
(reflecting a nondirectional hypothesis) posits a difference but in no particular direction.
51. Variability
52. reflects how scores differ from one another; also known as spread or dispersion; a measure of how different scores are from one another
53. Variable
a characteristic of interest that can assume different values
54. x, y variables
are used for areas of interest
 Author: aouie23 ID: 28768 Card Set: Flashcards-Statistics.txt Updated: 2010-08-03 02:07:55 Tags: Statistics Folders: Description: OB351 Show Answers: