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Name the Scales / Levels of Measurement (Least to Most Sophisticated)
 "1. Nominal Scale [Mode] Simply name variable in to discreet categories and count
 2. Ordinal Level [Median]  reflects magnitudes; you can rank variables; LIKERT Scales used for ranking
 3. Interval Scale [Median]  reflects magnitudes; equal intervals with arbitrary zero point
 4. Ratio Scale [Median]  reflects magnitude; equal intervals with absolute zero point"

Abcissa
Refers to the xaxis or the values of the variable

Arbitrary (True) Zero Point
Complete absence of the variable of interest

Average
 "Measures of Central Tendency;
 can be the mean, the median, and the mode;
 is the one value that best represents an entire group of scores"

Bar Graphs are the best representation of what?
 "Nominal Level/Scale
 Mode"

Cardinal Level of Measurement
 3. Interval Scale [Median]  reflects magnitudes; equal intervals with arbitrary zero point
 4. Ratio Scale [Median]  reflects magnitude; equal intervals with absolute zero point

Collection of Data
Data set or just data

Descriptive Statistics
 are used to organize and describe the characteristics of a collection of data
 Samples or populations

Directional Research Hypothesis
Reflects a difference between groups and the direction of the difference is specified

Define, Formula
A set of mathematical operators that performs a particular mathematical task

Formula: Mean
x bar equals x divided by N (the total count of items)

Formula: Range
 r equals the highest score minus the lowest score in the distribution
 r = h  l

Formula: Standard Deviation

Function
A predefined formula

Histograms best represent
 Cardinal level Scales of Measurement
 Interval Scale (median)
 Ratio Scale (median)

Hypotheses
Educated Guess

Inferential Statistics
 Used to make inferences from a smaller group of data to a possibly larger one
 logic & procedures for evaluating risks of inference based on samples of the population

Levels of Measurement
Same as Scales of Measurement

Mean Deviation
 Mean absolute Deviation
 the average of the absolute value of the deviations from the mean

Mean or the XBar
 The sum of all the values in a group divided by the number ofvalues in that group
 Is sensitive to extreme scores
 Is skewed in the dierction of the extreme score and therefore you would use the median

Measurement
The process of assigning a value or a score to the variable of interest

Measures of Central Tendency
 the Average
 a single summary value reflecting where the bulk of the data cluster [mode, median, mean]

The Median
 The Midpoint
 the point which one half, or 50%, of the scores fall above and one half, or 50%, fall below

Mode
The value that occurs most frequently

Null Hypothesis
statements of equality demonstrated by the following reallife null hypotheses taken from a variety of popular social and behavioral science journals.

Onetailed Test
(reflecting a directional hypothesis) posits a difference in a particular direction, such as when we hypothesize that Group 1 will score higher than Group 2

Ordinant
Refers to the yaxis or the frequency

Parameter
a measurable characteristic of a population; typically it is the mean

Pie charts best represent
Nominal Scale/Level (Mode)

Population
the larger group of data that the sample is taken from; a complete set of measurements having some common observable characteristics

Properties of Scale
 Magnitude of variable
 Equal intervals
 1. Arbitrary Zero Point
 2. Absolute (True) Zero Point

Range
a collection of cells

Research hypothesis
a definite statement that there is a relationship between variables

Sample
the smaller group of data that is a portion, or a subset, of a population; a subset of the population

Sampling error
a measure of how well a sample approximates the characteristics of a population

Standard Deviation
represents the average amount of variability in a set of scores

Statistics
describes a set of tools and techniques used for describing, organizing, and interpreting information or data; a measurable characteristic of a sample

Symbol: sigma
find the sum of what follows

Symbol: =/
means "is not equal to"

Symbol: the radical
Square root sign,

Symbol: N
population or total number of cases ; noun

Symbol: >
means "is greater than"

Symbol: H
represents the symbol for the first research hypotheses

Symbol: n
sample size, noun

Symbol: s
standard deviation

Symbol: X
each individual score

Symbol: X bar
the mean of all the scores

Symmetry or Skewed distribution
Symmetry/Bell Shaped Curve = Reasonably Symmetrical

Skewed
  Negative skew  mean is to the left of the median
  Positive skew  mean is to the right of the median

Twotailed test
(reflecting a nondirectional hypothesis) posits a difference but in no particular direction.


reflects how scores differ from one another; also known as spread or dispersion; a measure of how different scores are from one another

Variable
a characteristic of interest that can assume different values

x, y variables
are used for areas of interest