Lecture: chp 13 and 14

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Lecture: chp 13 and 14
2014-11-12 01:13:55
Exam 3
Lecture notes only
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  1. Is the brain part of the CNS or PNS?
  2. The function of this organ controls the heart rate, respiration, blood pressure and homeostasis, plus many other high level tasks
    The brain
  3. This is the most CAUDAL part of the brain and has 3 regions.
    Brain stem
  4. From rostal to caudal, what are the 3 regions of the brain stem?
    Midbrain -> pons -> medulla oblongada
    • 1. Brain stem
    • 2. cerebellum
    • 3. diecephalon
    • 4. cerebrum
  5. This part of the brain integrates auditory and visual reflexes
    brain stem
  6. this part of the brain produces a lot of our autoatic behavior for survival (HR, resp, etc.)
    brain stem
  7. The primary function of this part of the brain is motor coordination so our movements are smooth and not "jerky"
  8. The cerebellum has 2 hemishreres that are connected by this narrow worm like bridge.
    • Vermis
  9. what are the 3 parts of the diencephalon?
    • thalamus
    • hypothalamus
    • epithalamus
  10. All parts of the brain and sensory signals must ass through this part of the diencephalon. It organizes information then either amplifies or tones down the signals.
  11. This part of the diencephalon works together with the brain stem to control body temperature, which gives rises to fevers
  12. This part of the diencephalon also helps regulate: hunger, thirst, the endocrine system, emotions, and sleep and wake cycles
  13. This part of the diencephalon consists of one tiny group of brain nuclei and the pineal gland
  14. This gland is part of the epithalamus and secretes melatonin which signals to the body to prepare for sleep
    Pineal gland
  15. This is the largest part of the brain
  16. The cerebrum has 2 hemispheres connected at the _____ callosum
  17. What are the names in the cerebrum for its twisted ridges and shallowed grooves?
    • Twisted ridges: gyri
    • Shallowed grooves: sulci or sulcus
  18. These shallowed grooves divide the brain into lobes . What are the names of the lobes? (4 lobes)
    • Sulci:
    • 1. Frontal Lobe
    • 2. Parietal Lobe
    • 3. Occipital Lobe
    • 4. Temporal Lobe
    • 1. Frontal Lobe
    • 2. Parietal Lobe
    • 3. Occipital Lobe
    • 4. Temporal Lobe
  19. Are the diencephalon, basal nuclei and limbic system in the white or gray matter?
    Gray matter
  20. This part of the brain makes us aware of ourselves and gives our body sensation
    cerebral cortex
  21. This part of the brain allows us to remember and understand, as well as initiate movement and communication
    cerebral cortex
  22. What are the 3 different tracts in the white matter of the brain?
    • 1. commissural tracts/fibers
    • 2. projection tracts/fibers
    • 3. association tracts/fibers
  23. This tract in the white matter crosses from one hemisphere to another
    • commisurral tract
  24. This tract in the white matter of the brain extends vertically between higher and lower brain centors to/from the spinal cord and brain stem
    • projection tracts
  25. This tract in the white matter of the brain connects differents parts of the same hemisphere; connects neighboring cortical areas or "front to back"
    • Association tracts
  26. This part of the spinal cord provides a two-way conduction pathway for signals between the body and brain
    white matter
  27. This part of the nervous system is involved in the sensory and motor innervation of the entier body via spinal nerves
    spinal cord
  28. The spinal cord runs from _____ to _____ vertabrae
    foramen magnum -> L1 or L2 vertebrae
  29. What are the 31 pairs of spinal nerves attached to the spinal cord?
    • 8 cervical nerves
    • 12 thoracic nerves
    • 5 lumbar nerves
    • 5 sacral nerves
    • 1 coccygeal nerve
  30. What are the names of the "horns" in the gray matter of the spinal cord?
    Dorsal Horn, Ventral Horn,  Lateral horn(not needed)
  31. This "horn" consists entirely of interneuron and receives sensory infomation from the dorsal route ganglia.
    Dorsal horn
  32. This "horn" in the gray matter of the spinal cord contains somas of MOTOR neurons
    ventral horn
    • Top purple - somatic sensory
    • Pink - visceral sensory
    • Green - Visceral motor
    • Orange - Somatic motor (skeletal muscle)
  33. This color matter consists of axons that run up and down the spinal cord
    White matter
  34. This tract carries sensory information up the spinal cord
    ascending tracts
  35. The _________ carries ascending SENSORY
    dorsal white column
  36. this tract carries motor impulses down the spinal cord
    descending tracts
  37. The _______ contains mostly descending motor tracts (some ascending sensory)
    Ventral white column
  38. This white column contains a mixture of ascending and descending tracts
    Lateral white column
  39. If this nerve is damaged, breathing stops
    Phrenic nerve
  40. This picks up stimuli from outside and inside the body. It initiates impulses in sensory axons.
    sensory receptors
  41. These are axon terminals of motor neurons that innervate effector organs (muscle and glands)
    motor ending
  42. This sensory receptor can be either a "free nerve ending" or an "encapsulated nerve ending"
    Peripheral sensory receptor
  43. What kind of receptors are these
  44. This sensory receptor is abundant in epithelial CT under the epithelia.
    Free nerve endings
  45. This sensory receptor is mostly nociceptors and thermoceptors, or "itch receptors"
    Free nerve endings
  46. The end of this sensory receptor is enclosed in a nerve tisue. It is also all mechanoreceptors, a few different types mostly found in the skin.
    encapsulated nerve ending
  47. The 3 types of mechanoreceptors in the encapsulated nerve endings that end with corpuscles are:
    • Tactile corpuscles
    • Lamellar corpuscles
    • Bolbous corpuscles
  48. This corpuscle is for fine, light touches
    Tactile corpuscles
  49. This corpuscle is for deep pressure, but will "switch off" in a vibration
    Lamellar corpuscles
  50. This corpuscles monitors continuous pressure
    bolbous corpuscles
  51. This sensory receptor is located near the body surface and gets stimulated by stimuli from outside of the body (ex: pain)
  52. This sensory receptor finds and senses stimuli from inside of the body (viscera) (ex: taste, chemical changes)
  53. This sensory receptor is found inside muscle tendons, ligaments & joints. It monitors body movement, stretch and position.
  54. This stimulus type sensory receptor senses mechanical forces (stretching, touch, vibrations & itch, etc.)
  55. this stimulus type sensory receptor notices temperature changes
  56. This stimulus type sensory receptor responds to chemicals found
  57. This stimulus type sensory receptor responds to harmful stimuli > pain
  58. This sensory receptor monitors the legnth and tension within the muscle. It is responsible for the "stretch reflex" like the knee jerk for example
    muscle spindle
  59. This is located near the muscle tendon. It monitors  tension within tendon that is created when the muscle is shortening or stretched passively
    golgi tendon organ (GTO)
  60. This sensory receptor is located in synovial joints. They monitor stretching, acceleration, and position of non-moving joints
    Joint kinesthetic receptors
  61. This is the sensory nerve for smell. It goes though cribiform foramin.
    Nerve I: olfactory nerve
  62. This sensory nerve is for vision and goes through the optic canal
    Nerve II: optic nerves
  63. This is a motor nerve to move eye muscles. It goes through the superior orbital fissure
    Nerve III: oculomotor
  64. This is a mixed nerve with 3 branches
    Nerve V: trigeminal nerve
  65. What are the 3 branches of the trigeminal nerve
    • v1: opthalmic division
    • v2: maxillary division
    • v3: mandibular division
  66. This trigeminal nerve is for sensory, and goes through the superior orbital fissure
    Opthalmic division
  67. This trigeminal nerve is for sensory and goes through the foraman rotundan
    maxillary division
  68. This trigimenal nerve branch is sensory & motor and goes through the foramen ovale
    mandibular division
  69. Which divisions of the trigeminal nerve would a dentist numb?
    • v2: maxillary division
    • v3: mandibular division
  70. This is a "wanderer" mixed nerve that is part of the parasymathetic NS. It goes through the jugular foramen
    Nerve X: vagus nerve
  71. This nerve innervates the viscera, motorinnervation to pharynx and larynx, and goes through the jugular foramen
    Vagus nerve (X)
  72. This is a network of nerves formed by ventral rami only (mixture of sensory and motor)
    nerve plexuses
  73. T or F: because of the nerve plexuses, the nerves that arise at the lateral end of the plexus contains similiar fibers and sinal nerves
    False: it contains a mixture of fibers from serveral different spinal nerves
  74. What is the benefit of the nerve lexus network where there are a mixture of different spinal nerves?
    The destruction of a single spinal nerve does not comletely aralyze any limb muscle
  75. This nerve plexus is buried in the neck. It contains motor to some of ant. neck muscles.
    cervical plexus
  76. What is the most important nerve that arises from the cervical plexus, and what does it innervate?
    Phrenic nerve: innervates diaphragm for inspiration
  77. This plexus gives rise to all the nerves that suupply the upper limbs. Also gives rise to muscolocutaneous nerve (ant. brachium musle)
    Brachial plexus
  78. What are the 2 nerves that the lumbar plexus gives rise to?
    • Femoral nerve
    • Obturator nerve: medial compartment of thigh
  79. This plexi givee rise to the sciatic nerve
    Sacral plexus