Psych Exam 2

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  1. Identify the 3 basic hardware components that allow animals to respond to their environments and explain what they are
    • 1. Sensation
    • 2. Reflex
    • 3. Habituation
  2. What is sensation?
    ability to discriminate stimuli, sense changes in the environment
  3. What is a reflex?
    hard-wired stimulus-response circuits, things our bodes do in response to stimuli that we don't have to learn to do
  4. Learn associations (and example)
    make simple predictions

    ex: rat associate sound of bell with cat coming
  5. Learn sloppily (and example)
    generalization- ability to take what you learn and apply it to broader situations

    ex: rat associated sound of bell to other cats as well
  6. Generalization gone too far (and example)

    ex: little albert- scared of all furry things after the incident
  7. Learn sparingly (and example)
    blocking, only learning one pattern of relationships

    ex: rat salivated in response to pair of light and music, but not to music alone because he already formed association with light and cheese
  8. Learn slowly (and example)
    latent inhibition, learn somewhat cautiously because what we see once won't always happen again

    ex: light flashes for really long time, no cheese, the light flashes right before cheese but rat doesn't salivate b/c ability to associate is inhibited
  9. Unlearn slowly (and example)
    extinction, decay of response to stimulus

    ex: eventually stops associating light with cheese, but takes 5-6 trials to do so -- once learned, we are slow at giving something up
  10. Relearn quickly (and example)
    spontaneous recovery

    ex: after 20 min rest, condition will reappear on 7th trial
  11. Unconditioned stimulus
    unlearned, things that elicit reflexes

    ex: cheese (makes rat salivate)
  12. Conditioned stimulus
    stimulus that elicits response following learning

    ex: light (makes rat salivate)
  13. Unconditioned response

    ex: salivating (in response to cheese)
  14. Conditioned response
    response that occurs after association is made through learning, same as unconditioned response

    ex: salivating (in response to light flashing)
  15. Classical Conditioning
    aka pavlovian

    organism learns to associate two events, occurs whenever neutral stimuli are associated with a significant event
  16. Operant Conditioning
    aka instrumental

    occurs when a behavior is associated with the occurrence of a significant event
  17. Operant
    operates on the environment, usually the behavior

    ex: rat pressing lever
  18. Reinforcer
    strengthens the response

    ex: food pellets that are produced by pressing lever
  19. Main difference between classical and operant conditioning?
    Classical deals with a stimulus while operant deals with a behavior
  20. Examples of operant conditioning (two)
    1. BF Skinner's Box- rat learns to press a lever in the box when lever-pressing produces pellets

    2. Skinner's dancing pigeon
  21. Why is operant conditioning important?
    provides a method for studying how consequences influence voluntary behavior
  22. The law of effect
    if the response to a stimulus is followed by a satisfying event, the association is strengthened


    if the response to a stimulus is followed by an annoying event, the association is weakened
  23. Continuous reinforcement
    rewarded every time something happens
  24. Fixed Ratio reinforcement
    not rewarded every time, but rewarded every certain amount

    ex: every 5 times
  25. Fixed Interval reinforcement
    doesn't depend on actions, relies on time passing

    ex: pension- nothing can make check come faster, will come every month at the same time
  26. Variable Ratio reinforcement
    still rewarded on average every few times but not an exact amount every time

    ex: gambling machines, not rewarded every 5 times, but 5 times on average
  27. Variable Interval reinforcement
    giving away a few times a day but don't know exactly when during the day

    ex: radio show giveaways
  28. What is meant by radical behaviorism
    means that all behavior is a result of its reinforcement history

    anybody can be anything- if people are products of their environments, the environment is what limits them, not genetics or status
  29. Blank Slate Hypothesis
    children are like empty blackboards, that anything can be written on them
  30. Examples of phenomena not explained by behaviorism
    Babies are born knowing things they couldn't have possible learned

    ex: staring longer at faces that are more visually pleasing

    ex: being scared of spiders (biological preparedness hypothesis)
  31. What are the three types of memory?
    • 1. Sensory- short term memory, aids in sensory processing
    • 2. Working- things we are actively working on in our minds right now
    • 3. Long Term- stored in brain permanently
  32. What are the two types of sensory memory?
    • 1. Iconic (visual)- lets you keep some visual representation of one side of a room long enough to form impression of the whole scene
    • 2. Echoic (auditory)- lets you keep last few seconds of auditory input in order to make sense of a long sentence
  33. What are the two types of long term memory?
    • 1. Implicit
    • 2. Explicit
  34. What are the two types of implicit memory?
    • 1. Semantic- basic knowledge of world, including words and their meanings
    • 2. Episodic- ability to remember episodes of your life, such as past events
  35. What are the two types of explicit memory?
    • 1. Priming- once part of a distributed representation is already activated, it is easier to activate memories that overlap with that distributed representation
    • 2. Procedural- where our motor programs are stored, guides the processes we perform
  36. The purpose of iconic/echoic memory
    Lets us hold impressions/echoes long enough to make meaning
  37. Distributed representation (+ example)
    all of our memories form unique patterns of neurons that fire but overlap with other memories

    ex: calculator
  38. Lexical Decision Task
    faster/easier response if recently fired neurons are accessed again

    ex: people respond faster to scalpel if it comes after doctor compared to professor
  39. How does distributed representation work in encoding and retrieval for episodic memory?
    • encoding- making new distributed patterns of representations
    • retrieval-
  40. What are retrieval cues & how do they work?
    Little piece of a memory that helps you remember the rest of the memory
  41. The 3 consequences of distributed representations?
    • 1. Levels of processing
    • 2. Encoding specificity
    • 3. Context dependence
  42. Levels of Processing (+ example)
    deep vs shallow processing 

    ex: memory assignment in recitation, easier to remember words for people who analyzed them deeply vs people who rhymed them with other words
  43. Encoding Specificity
    memory is better when retrieval cue overlaps with those available during encoding

    ex: task #1- rhyme, task #2- associate, if retrieval occurs through task 1, memory will be better for items encoded through that task
  44. Context Dependence
    • aspects of environment we have learned in allow
    • us to better retrieve the information
  45. Function of the hippocampus
    serves as a convergence zone for the formation of new explicit memories
  46. Patient HM - what happened & why is it so important to research
    He underwent surgery to have his hippocampus removed because of his seizures, because of this he was never able to form new memories but could remember everything up until his surgery
  47. Deficits and abilities of patient HM
    deficits- terrible at recalling/recognizing new words

    abilities- good at remembering names of people that were famous before his surgery, intact procedural memory even though he couldn't remember where/why he learned those motor skills,
  48. How does the case of Patient HM provide evidence for the distinction between implicit and explicit memory?
    he had no problem in retrieval, only had problems with encoding events into his memory

    couldn't access new semantic/episodic memory but was his procedural memory was still intact
  49. Patient S- his condition
    a journalist who remembered everything word for word

    could remember everything but couldn't control flood of memories into his mind -- led to lack of inner peace so he shut himself in
  50. What did the case of Patient S illustrate?
    shows us that the ability to forget irrelevant things is actually very helpful
  51. What are the 7 sins of memory?
    • 1. Absent-mindedness
    • 2. Transience
    • 3. Blocking
    • 4. Bias
    • 5. Misattribution
    • 6. Suggestibility
    • 7. Persistance
  52. Of the 7 sins of memory, which are the sins of omission?
    omission= forgetting

    • 1. absent-mindedness
    • 2. transcience
    • 3. blocking
  53. Of the 7 sins of memory, which are the  sins of distortion?
    distortion= fasle representation

    • 1. bias
    • 2. misattribution
    • 3. suggestibility
  54. Absent-mindedness
    failure of attention, information never gets past the sensory memory stage
  55. Transience
    paid attention to the thing but got distracted before rehearsing/elaborating on it, led to forgetting it
  56. Blocking
    in long-term memory, but unable to retrieve memory when it is needed, basically access to info is blocked

    "tip of the tongue" phenomenon

    prevents us from getting flooded with memories like Patient S did
  57. Bias
    info is stored or retrieved imperfectly, pre-frontal cortex may fill in information that wasn't there or distort info based on our goals/desires
  58. Misattribution
    when the source of real memories are misattributed in a way that makes them seem false
  59. Suggestibility
    remembering things that never happened at all

    suggestions/questions people ask can influence retrieval process or lead us to imagine things that happening to us when they never did 

    ex: getting lost in mall, riding a hot air balloon
  60. Persistance
    failure of blocking, can't get something out of your head
  61. Difference between errors of omission and errors of commission?
    omission- mind does do what it needs to do in order to remember something

    commission- mind actively does something to remember incorrectly
  62. What is meant by the term prospecting?
    the ability to thing about far-future events
  63. Expected value = ???
    Odds of gain x Value of gain

    if EC of doing something is lower than EC of not doing, it would not be rational to do that thing
  64. What are the 5 possible errors of odds?
    • 1. Sample size neglect
    • 2. Gambler's fallacy
    • 3. Conjunction fallacy
    • 4. Availability bias
    • 5. Planning Fallacy
  65. Sample Size Neglect
    the larger the sample size, the less likely it is to show deviations

    ex: percent of baby boys in one hospital vs another, will be closer to 50% in the hospital with larger sample
  66. Gambler's Fallacy
    belief that likelihood of a chance is influence by the nature of the events preceding it

    ex: gambling machines, people think that since the last 10 tries didn't work, the next one will be it
  67. Conjunction Fallacy
    probability of one thing happening is always greater than two things happening together

    people usually think two things happening together is more likely
  68. Availability Bias
    things that are easier to come to mind, we assume they happen more often

    ex: plane crashes don't happen more often but we think so because when they happen, they are all over the news
  69. Planning Fallacy
    we are bad at predicting how long something will take, usually underestimate the amount of time needed to complete a project
  70. What are the 4 possible errors of valuation?
    • 1. Presentism
    • 2. Comparing to the past
    • 3. Prospect Theory
    • 4. Temporal Discounting
  71. Presetism
    using current/present state to predict how much you will value something in the future

    ex: going grocery shopping while hungry will lead you to end up buying everything because you think you will want all those things later too
  72. Comparing to the Past
    people tend to compare to the past too much when making judgements about the future, even though in the future you might care about someone else
  73. Prospect Theory
    explains how we determine value while accounting for biases
  74. Temporal Discounting
    forfeiting future benefits for a benefit that can be received right now
  75. Prospect theory- steeper for losses than for gains
    small change in objective value feels like huge change in subjective value
  76. Prospect theory- Asymptotes of the curve
    curve flattens out as we go into bigger values
  77. Endowment Effect
    how much people think something is worth depends on whether they own it or not and if they are in the position of selling it or not
  78. What are the 5 stages of sleep?
    • 1- half awake/half asleep, debatable whether actually asleep or not
    • 2- light sleep, irregularity in brain waves
    • 3/4- deep sleep
    • REM- where dreaming occurs, go into & out of this stage all night
  79. Properties of Dolphin Sleep
    one of the few mammals that don't have REM sleep, because REM sleep paralyzes body which is dangerous for dolphins because they need to come up for air every so often

    the two hemisphere of their brains take turns sleeping and they basically swim in circles during that time
  80. The role of thalamus in nonREM/REM sleep
    known as a relay station for sensory information, transmits that info to other regions in the brain

    takes whats coming in & decides who needs it

    during non-REM sleep, it acts like a gate be keeping sensory info from going further into the brain by raising the threshold needed to pass along info to the brain
  81. The role of Pons in REM sleep
    helps keep regular time

    every 90 min it sends signals to the thalamus, telling it to send random signals to various areas of the brain

    signal from pons helps block motor activity coming from the brain, basically paralyzing the rest of our bodies
  82. Loss of REM-Related Atonia
    acting out dreams

    ex: cat acting out its dreams while it is asleep
  83. Narcolepsy
    going from awake directly into REM sleep, no sign of going into deep sleep
  84. Evidence that sleep enhances procedural memory
    people are better at motor tasks after sleeping

    ex: people asked to do motor task with non-dominant hand, the group that trained at night, slept, and was tested in the morning did better than the group that trained morning & night but did not sleep & was tested
  85. Evidence that sleep enhances episodic memory
    people were very bad at learning new list of words when sleep-deprived, even if they were allows to sleep after learning they will still not remember the words as well
  86. Evidence that sleep enhances insight
    people were more likely to figure out complicated pattern in a logic problem after they had slept
  87. Consequences of sleep deprivation
    Slower brain processing & response time

    rapid decrease of weight, increase of food intake, appearance of hallucinations, difficulty concentrating
  88. Freud's theory of dreams
    Dreams are the guardians of sleep

    Dreaming is very important because it helps work out the conflicts in our minds, we need that balance between conscious & unconscious mind
  89. Hobson's Activation-Synthesis model of dreams
    thalamus turns on different activations in the brain and since very weak signals are sent to the frontal cortex, we are usually unable to make sense of our dreams
  90. What are the features of dreams according to Hobson?
    • visual hallucinations
    • motor behavior
    • emotional content
    • reduction in logical reasoning
    • poor memory
    • loss of directed thought/self-reflection
  91. The Parsing Problem & its solution
    hard for us to distinguish the spaces between different words in an unfamiliar language

    by unconsciously tracking the statistical properties of that language
  92. The Reference Problem
    How do you figure out which thing a word refers to?
  93. What are the four ways the reference problem can be solved?
    • 1. Social Referencing- paying attention to what the speaker is paying attention to
    • 2. Novelty Matching- since we assume that each thing only refers to one word, a new word is assumed to go with the unknown thing in the group of known things
    • 3. Intentionality- paying attention to whether an action is done on purpose vs. by accident can help u decide if the verb refers to that action or not
    • 4. Category Assumption- preference for assuming that words refer to the basic level of categories
  94. 2 ways that human language is unique from the communication systems of other animals?
    there is no limit to what we can express or the variety of what we can express

    we can use the words we already know/have to describe a new idea
  95. Function of cooing
    vowel sound practice
  96. Function of babbling
    warm up for consonants
  97. Why is syntax a critical property of language?
    lets us use the words we have to convey new ideas

    word order is very important, can combine words in different ways to convey different ideas
  98. Evidence that grammar and meaning are separable in the brain
    Each is controlled by different areas of the brain

    meaning depends on language you speak, and we don't have to learn grammar because we have a natural predisposition for it
  99. Broca's Aphasia
    problem with syntax, not meaning

    Patient has an idea to convey but unable to string words together in order to convey that idea
  100. Wernicke's Aphasia
    trouble with meaning, not syntax

    can string words together, but they just don't make any sense
  101. Which area of the brain supports grammar/syntax?
    Broca's area
  102. Which area of the brain supports meaning?
    Wernicke's area
  103. Three proposals to how children learn syntax & why they are wrong
    • 1. Instruction- kids still end up saying what they want even if they are taught something several times
    • 2. Imitation- make a lot of errors, try to use grammar in their own way
    • 3. Reinforcement- parents tend to correct children on the content of their speech, not the grammar
  104. Evidence supporting the idea that there is a sensitive period for acquiring syntax
    The Case of Genie

    neglected by parents & left in basement, never talked to, even after she was rescued, she never  learned how to string words together
  105. Example of an implicature
    "I was wondering if you would be able to drive me to the airport tomorrow morning.."

    asked if he/she was able to do so, not willing but he/she assumes that this is a request for ride to airport
  106. Two ways chimpanzee language is different from human language
    1. Acquired much more slowly & laboriously whereas language in children booms day by day

    2. Human children start combining words at a young age to form new idea, but chimps don't do that
  107. What is a concept?
    the mental representation we form of a category

    Ex: category=trucks, we have a concept of trucks in our minds
  108. Why are concepts important?
    allow us to extend what we have learning about a limited number of objects to a potentially infinite set of entities while also allowing us to know what to do in new situations with new objects but familiar concepts

    Ex: new classroom, but we know what to expect because we are familiar with concept of a classroom/school
  109. What is meant by typicality?
    among members that are clearly in a group, some seem to be better members than others
  110. Category prototype
    the most typical category member
  111. Family Resemblance Theory
    items are likely to be typical if they: 

    • 1. have the features that are frequent in that category
    • 2. do not have features that are frequent in other categories
  112. Basic level of organization
    what comes to mind when shows an object/picture

    not too small, nor too big, just right level
  113. The physical stance
    deals with chemistry/physics of situations, forces behind objects
  114. Design Stance
    describes purpose/function of that thing
  115. Data on Social-Brain evolution
    As group size expands, the number of social relationships we have to remember expands as well
  116. Pain of social exclusion (specifically, what area of brain activates during physical pain & social exclusion?)
    The anterior cingulate cortex is activated both times, suggesting that social exclusion can be felt as physical pain
  117. How does distributed know-how show a positive consequence of living in groups?
    We all benefit from each others knowledge, by living together in a structured social group we don't have to know how to do everything, can rely on knowledge of other people
  118. What is meant by the ratchet of culture
    Allows us to make use of the tools and technology made by people in the past, don't have to reinvent something if we want to use/learn it
  119. Norm of fairness
    People are willing to lose something just to punish other people in order to teach them a lesson

    Ex: give $10 to one person, asked to split with another person, second person can accept or reject deal & if they reject it, both will get nothing
  120. Culture of Honor
    some norms make living in communities better but may create tension when people from outside communities come in

    Ex: comparing southerners vs. northerners
  121. Intragroup competition
    conflict within our own group
  122. Evidence that we have a specialized mechanism for "cheater detection"
    Easier to detect cheaters when there is some sort of social meaning behind the rules

    Ex: drinking underage example vs. Q/P rule
  123. Asch Experiment- what kind of conformity does it show?
    Going along with the crowd

    participant agreed with confederates giving wrong answer even though he knew it was wrong
  124. Milgram Experiment- what kind of conformity does it show?
    Obedient to authority

    almost 70% of the people actually administered the strongest fatal shock only because they were being told to do so by person in white lab coat
  125. Stanford Prison Experiment- what kind of conformity does it show?
    Conformity to expected roles

    Students forgot they were part of an experiment and actually started taking their roles seriously as guards & prisoners
  126. Diffusion of Responsibility (and example)
    Case of Kitty Genovese- "I assumed somebody else would help"

    sometimes when you're in a group, you feel that somebody else will take the responsibility for ending the problem
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Psych Exam 2
Exam 2 vocab/concepts
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