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For priming to be effective, which 3 conditions must be met?
-illumination of room
-seated certain distance from screen
What is a group?
2 or more people who interact and are interdependent in the sense that their needs and goals cause them to influence each other
3 ways real groups are distinguished by others
Features of groups) similarity
People are attracted to similar others
Features of groups) group cohesiveness
The more cohesive the more likely group member wild stay
Features of groups) social norms
Violating norms results in pressure to conform
Features of groups) social roles
Roles are helpful but they have costs
*what if they are unfair
Why do people join groups? (3)
-help us define our identity
-to get things done
Why do people join groups) provide information (2)
-need for accuracy
-informational social influence
Why do people join groups) help us define our identity (3)
-social identity theory
-need to feel good
-normative social influence
Why do people join groups) to get things done
divide the labor between members
What do groups do to our attitudes?) party-over-policy effect
People endorsed the policy proposed by their own party regardless of the content of the policy
What do groups do to our attitudes?) why does party over policy effect occur?
Groups that are important to us can serve as sources of information about what is the right or wrong attitude
What do groups do to our attitudes?) what does discussion with like minded others produce?
How are we affected by the presence of others?
Do individuals exert less effort In a group?
When do people owe their sense of self in groups?
Social facilitation) Triplett study
Bike racers were faster in competition than alone
Social facilitation) what is social inhibition?
People sometime do worse when someone is observing them
Social facilitation) zajonc study: what does arousal activate?
The dominant response
Social facilitation) zajonc study: easy task>
Dominant (likely) response is correct> we do better
Social facilitation) zajonc study: difficult task>
Dominant(likely) response is often wrong> we do worse
Social facilitation) zajonc study: what does social facilitation strengthen?
The likely response in the presence of others
Formula for easy task
Presence of others> physiological arousal> easy task as dominant(likely) response> improved performance
Formula of difficult task
Presence of others> physiological arousal> complex task and likely dominant response> impaired performance
Social facilitation) zajonc study on cockroaches running in a maze in cockroach stadium results (2)
-Simple maze with presence of others lead to faster times
-difficult maze in presence of others slowed them down
Why does the presence of others lead to arousal? (3)
What is social loafing?
Tendency for people to relax when they are in the presence of others and their individual performance cannot be evaluated
Social loafing) when individual performance cannot be evaluated, the presence of others...(2)
Simple tasks: impairs performance
Complex tasks: enhances performance
Why does social loafing occur?
Social loafing) when people pool their resources towards a common goal and each indiivudal contribution is not identifiable..
Increases social loafing
If the task is something you care about or you have a relationship with group members...
Decreases social loafing
If each person's performance can be individually evaluated..
Social loafing disappears
Are people aware of their social loafing?
They lack awareness of their loafing
Social loafing) how can we motivate group members?
Identify individual performance
Social loafing) gender differences?
Men are more likely to social loaf
Social loafing) cultural differences
Tendency to loaf is stronger in western compared to Asian cultures due to independent and interdependent
Social faciliatiaion formular
Presence of others leads to individual efforts evaluated leads to alertness, evaluation apprehension, distraction conflict, leads to arousal, then leads to either enhanced performance on simple tasks or impaired performance on complex tasks
Formula on social loafing
Presence of others leads to individual efforts pooled and not evaluated leads to no evaluation apprehension leads to relaxation which the outcome will be either impaired performance on simple tasks or enhanced performance on complex tasks
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