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  1. For priming to be effective, which 3 conditions must be met?
    -illumination of room

    -seated certain distance from screen

    -no distractions
  2. What is a group?
    2 or more people who interact and are interdependent in the sense that their needs and goals cause them to influence each other
  3. 3 ways real groups are distinguished by others

    -group identity

    -group structure
  4. Features of groups) similarity
    People are attracted to similar others
  5. Features of groups) group cohesiveness
    The more cohesive the more likely group member wild stay
  6. Features of groups) social norms
    Violating norms results in pressure to conform
  7. Features of groups) social roles
    Roles are helpful but they have costs

    *what if they are unfair
  8. Why do people join groups? (3)
    -provide information

    -help us define our identity

    -to get things done
  9. Why do people join groups) provide information (2)
    -need for accuracy

    -informational social influence
  10. Why do people join groups) help us define our identity  (3)
    -social identity theory

    -need to feel good

    -normative social influence
  11. Why do people join groups) to get things done
    divide the labor between members
  12. What do groups do to our attitudes?) party-over-policy effect
    People endorsed the policy proposed by their own party regardless of the content of the policy
  13. What do groups do to our attitudes?) why does party over policy effect occur?
    Groups that are important to us can serve as sources of information about what is the right or wrong attitude
  14. What do groups do to our attitudes?) what does discussion with like minded others produce?
  15. How are we affected by the presence of others?
    Social facilitation
  16. Do individuals exert less effort In a group?
    Social loafing
  17. When do people owe their sense of self in groups?
  18. Social facilitation) Triplett study
    Bike racers were faster in competition than alone
  19. Social facilitation) what is social inhibition?
    People sometime do worse when someone is observing them
  20. Social facilitation) zajonc study: what does arousal activate?
    The dominant response
  21. Social facilitation) zajonc study: easy task>
    Dominant (likely) response is correct> we do better
  22. Social facilitation) zajonc study: difficult task>
    Dominant(likely) response is often wrong> we do worse
  23. Social facilitation) zajonc study: what does social facilitation strengthen?
    The likely response in the presence of others
  24. Formula for easy task
    Presence of others> physiological arousal> easy task as dominant(likely) response> improved performance
  25. Formula of difficult task
    Presence of others> physiological arousal> complex task and likely dominant response> impaired performance
  26. Social facilitation) zajonc study on cockroaches running in a maze in cockroach stadium results (2)
    -Simple maze with presence of others lead to faster times

    -difficult maze in presence of others slowed them down
  27. Why does the presence of others lead to arousal? (3)

    -evaluation apprehension

  28. What is social loafing?
    Tendency for people to relax when they are in the presence of others and their individual performance cannot be evaluated
  29. Social loafing) when individual performance cannot be evaluated, the presence of others...(2)
    Simple tasks: impairs performance

    Complex tasks: enhances performance
  30. Why does social loafing occur?
  31. Social loafing) when people pool their resources towards a common goal and each indiivudal contribution is not identifiable..
    Increases social loafing
  32. If the task is something you care about or you have a relationship with group members...
    Decreases social loafing
  33. If each person's performance can be individually evaluated..
    Social loafing disappears
  34. Are people aware of their social loafing?
    They lack awareness of their loafing
  35. Social loafing) how can we motivate group members?
    Identify individual performance
  36. Social loafing) gender differences?
    Men are more likely to social loaf
  37. Social loafing) cultural differences
    Tendency to loaf is stronger in western compared to Asian cultures due to independent and interdependent
  38. Social faciliatiaion formular
    Presence of others leads to individual efforts evaluated leads to alertness, evaluation apprehension, distraction conflict, leads to arousal, then leads to either enhanced performance on simple tasks or impaired performance on complex tasks
  39. Formula on social loafing
    Presence of others leads to individual efforts pooled and not evaluated leads to no evaluation apprehension leads to relaxation which the outcome will be either impaired performance on simple tasks or enhanced performance on complex tasks
Card Set:
2014-11-01 22:58:07
Social Psychology

Groups 1
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