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Who wrote "A Defense of Poetry"
Percy Bysshe Shelley
Percy Bysshe Shelley wrote...
A Defense of Poetry
Percy Bysshe Shelley was an advocate for the ___________ Theory.
The Romantic Theory gave power to the ________
Shelley's four values of literature are ____
- Embody ideal perfection of age
- strengthens moral organs
- exposes beauty of the every day
Romantic theory 5 requirements:
- Author is god. Touched by divine/creator
- Great art is timeless
- Imagination is crucial
- Instrument of moral good
- Lit = light of inner being
Winstatt and Beardsley wrote
The Intentional Fallacy
The Intentional Fallacy was written by
Winstatt and Beardsley
Winstatt and Beardsley were what kind of theorists?
What is the Intentional Fallacy?
Mistaken belief that an author's intention determines the meaning in a text.
Organic unity suggests that _________
Everything is balanced. New critic idea.
New Critics believe in ________ and think focus should be on______________
- Organic unity
- Focus on the text
3 steps of new criticism
- Find a tension
- trace repeated appearance of tension
- Explain how competing ideas work together to reveal something about how both sides relate
What are the three tensions that new critics try to find?
Who wrote Course in General Linguistics: Linguistic Value ?
Ferdinand Saussure wrote
Course in General Linguistics: Linguistic Value
Ferdinand Saussure believed in the ____________ approach
The structuralists are interested in ______________
The whole system. How do works fit with other works that follow the same pattern? and how do they break that formula?
What is the definition of a "system" in terms of structuralism?
Set of rules or conventions that define certain genres.
Saussure calls the "system" another word. He calls it __________
Saussure argues that language is _________ and ___________ constructed. (Over time _______ are _____________)
Arbitrary, socially, rules, learned
The structuralist diagram puts the _________ over the ___________
The vertical exchange between the signified and signifier is called
The horizontal exchange between the signified and the signifer is called the
Explain "value" in terms of its use with words.
Value is the understanding the value of words by comparing and contrasting with other words that have similar meanings. Such as comparing "Hungry" with "starving" "famished" etc
What is the "signified" mean
The idea of the object, such as the idea of a cat.
What is the signifier?
The word or image we associate with the idea. Such as the image of the "cat" and the word we pair with the idea.
What is a "sign?"
Concept tied to the image. such as letters.
What is the referent?
The thing itself.
Performative utterences was written by?
JL Austin wrote ________
What is a performative Utterence?
Makes something happen when it's stated. A statement that cannot be deemed either true or false. Performing that action instead of describing it. Such as apologizing or promising.
What is a Felicitous performative utterence?
- Acknowledges convention a correct circumstnace
- sincere (meaning what you say)
- Example: keeping a promise when making a promise
Who wrote "structural analysis of Narrative?"
Tzvetan Todorov wrote
Structural analysis of narrative
Who are the structuralist authors we've been studying?
Todorov, Austin, Saussure, and Barthes
Main ideas of todorov readings:
- argument that science is objective and literature is subjective
- there is no social science that is subjectivity free
- discussing difference of psychoanlaysis and new criticism
- Use of Decameron as example for the formula in plot x--> y ----> etc
- horizontal change in syntax
- Example: dog fights wild hog, gets injured ---> Wild hog gets injured, fights dog
- Vertical syntax change
- For example: Luke Fights vader, wins quest ---> Frodo fights sauron, wins quest
Syntagmatic vs Paradigmatic change is proposed by
The Death of the Author is written by
Roland Barthes wrote
The Death of the Author
Roland Barthes argues that:
- Writing calls for no ultimate meaning.
- Work can be followed and interpreted by there is no one definite answer
"Multiple writing" was coined by _______ and it means:
Barthes. Means that writing is a tangled that that cannot be unthreaded
Main ideas for Roland Barthe's The Death of the Author
- everything to be disentangled but not deciphered
- structure can be threaded but no end to it
- refusal to sign ultimate meaning to text
- Writing loses its origin then acts as performative utterence, effective based on mediator
Who wrote the Deconstructive Angel?
J Hillis Miller wrote
The Critic As Host
Deconstruction basically is
- The multiplicity of meaning.
- Example: "The man took a stroll in the park"
- breaking down the word stroll to make that sentence mean different things.
MH Abrams wrote
The Deconstructive Angel
Deconstructive Angel Main Ideas
- That Deconstruction breaks down until there is no meaning
- Speech and literal meaning exist, showing that "what i said" means "What i said"
J Hillis Miller The Critic as host main ideas
Breaks down Parasite and Host to display deconstruction in action.
Who wrote "The interpretation of Dreams?"
Sigmund Freud wrote
The Interpretation of Dreams
Who wrote The Mirror Stage?
Jacques Lacan wrote
The Mirror Stage
The Freudian talking cure therapy
Psychoanalysis was meant to cure
Neurosis and Hysterics
What are Hysterics?
Physical symptoms with no physical cause
What is the Super Ego?
What is the Ego?
The conscious self
What is the id
instinctive drives, urges we cannot acknowledge
2 aspects of the conscious are
the ego and super ego
the aspect of the unconscious is
Freud's idea of how the Unconscious was uncovered was by these 5 ways
- slips of the tongue
- memory lapse
- art and literature
Frued coined the __________ complex
Infant sexuality a la Freud
- all infants are born in polyamourous perversing (sexual drives in all directions)
- as they grow they are taught to restrict these desires
What is Manifest Content mean
Imagery an d words of dream itself
Dream work is
the actual dream
Latent Content is
the disguised stuff, "dream thoughts"
What are Lacan's three stages
- Infant Stage 0-6 months confusing blend of indistinct experiences, feelings, biological needs, sense perceptions
- Mirror Stage 6-18 months seeing self causes psychological response that produces mental concept of I. The I vs ideal I. Asymptotoic of never reaching ideal I. That chase/split is what causes neurosis
- 18 months - 4 years acquisition of language. Law of the fathers aka law of no. When one understands "no"
The use of force was written by
The use of force