Oceanography Chapters 10-14 Baker OCC

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Oceanography Chapters 10-14 Baker OCC
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Oceanography Chapters 10-14 Baker OCC
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  1. What is plankton?
    A. An actively swimming organism
    B. A drifting organism
    C. Microscopic organism
    D. An internal organism
    E. Any photosynthetic organism
    B. A drifting organism
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. What connects all plankton?
    A. Evolutionary history
    B. Feeding methods
    C. Ecological lifestyle
    D. Morphology
    C. Ecological lifestyle
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. Why are phytoplankton critical for marine life?
    A. All of the choices
    B. They are able to bind billions of tons of carbon into carbohydrates
    C. They are large contribution to marine food webs
    D. They generate massive amounts of atmospheric oxygen
    A. All of the choices
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. Which plankton are considered microplankton?
    A. Cyanobacteria
    B. Kelp
    C. Dinoflagellates
    D. Copepods
    C. Dinoflagellates
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. What is the smallest form of plankton and includes most viruses?
    A. Microplankton
    B. Nanoplankton
    C. Picoplankton
    D. Femtoplankton
    D. Femtoplankton
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. What planktonic group accounts for 80% of all photosynthesis in the tropics?
    A. Nanoplankton
    B. Microplankton
    C. Mesoplankton
    D. Picoplankton
    D. Picoplankton
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. What is a frustule?
    A. The rigid cell wall of a diatom
    B. The by-product of photosynthesis in diatoms
    C. A microscopic phage that attacks diatoms
    d. None of the above
    A. The rigid cell wall of a diatom
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  8. What allows diatoms to expand in size during reproduction?
    A. Auxospore
    B. Pennate
    C. Frustule
    D. Flagellate
    A. Auxospore
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  9. What is usually the culprit for a harmful algal bloom known as red tides?
    A. Viruses
    B. Diatoms
    C. Dinoflagellates
    D. Cyanobactiera
    C. Dinoflagellates
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. A highly biological productive ocean surface appears chalky due to the calcium carbonate cell walls. This is due to the successful bloom of what plankton ?
    A. Diatoms
    B. Coccolithophores
    C. Dinoflagellates
    d. None of the above
    B. Coccolithophores
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  11. What is essential in the restoration of nonconservative nutrients and supports the continuation of photosynthetic productivity in the ocean?
    A. Upwelling
    B. Blooming
    C. Carbon dioxide
    D. Light
    A. Upwelling
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  12. What factor(s) limit primary productivity in the ocean?
    a. Light
    b. Carbon dioxide
    c. Iron
    d. Inorganic nutrients
    Light and Inorganic nutrients
  13. What is true of compensation depth?
    a. It is the depth at which carbohydrate and oxygen production equals the amount of consumption
    b. It marks the bottom of the euphotic zone
    c. It receives 90% of surface light penetration
    d. All choices are correct
    • It is the depth at which carbohydrate and oxygen production equals the amount of consumption  AND
    • It marks the bottom of the euphotic zone
  14. What changes the compensation depth?
    A. Angle of the sun
    B. Surface turbulence
    C. All of the choices
    D. Turbidity
    C. All of the choices
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  15. What kind of plankton remains planktonic for its entire life?
    A. Mesoplankton
    B. Meroplankton
    C. Holoplankton
    D. Zooplankton
    C. Holoplankton
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  16. What kind of plankton remains planktonic for only part of its life?
    A. Zooplankton
    B. Holoplankton
    C. Meroplankton
    D. Mesoplankton
    C. Meroplankton
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  17. There are plankton in every major group of animals.
    True or False
    True
  18. Approximately 55% of the sunlight energy absorbed by diatoms is converted into energy for carbohydrate chemical bonds.
    True or False
    True
  19. Coccolithophores are able to utilize more frequencies of light so they can be deeper in the euphotic zone and need less light.
    True or False
    False
  20. Nearshore productivity is almost always more productive than open ocean productivity.
    True or False
    True
  21. Seaweeds are not a type of plant.
    True or False
    True
  22. Seaweeds or multicellular algae have vascular tissues.
    True or False
    False
  23. Seaweeds do NOT have:
    A. stipes
    B. blades
    C. gas bladders
    D. holdfast
    E. leaves
    E. leaves
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  24. Low, muddy coasts in tropical and some subtropical areas are often home to tangled masses of:
    A. trees called mangroves
    B. unicellular algae
    C. kelp
    D. seaweeds
    E. sea grasses
    A. trees called mangroves
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  25. Seaweeds are classified by:
    A. their size
    B. their photosynthetic pigments
    C. their morphology
    D. their vascular tissues
    B. their photosynthetic pigments
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  26. What layer of the ocean is permanently devoid of light?
    A. Disphotic zone
    B. Photic zone
    C. Aphotic zone
    D. Euphotic zone
    C. Aphotic zone
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  27. What is the largest biogeochemical cycle?
    A. Global Carbon cycle
    B. Global Nitrogen cycle
    C. Global Phosphorus cycle
    D. Global Silicon cycle
    A. Global Carbon cycle
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  28. What is a more accurate term for the feeding relationship of organisms involving multiple organisms at each trophic level for a higher level organism to eat?
    A. Food web
    B. Food chain
    C. Primary consumption
    D. Trophic chains
    A. Food web
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  29. What is a heterotroph?
    A. An organism that creates its own food
    B. An organism the conducts chemosynthesis
    C. An organism that remains plankton for its entire life
    D. An organism that eat other organism
    D. An organism that eat other organism
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  30. Before nitrogen can be used by organisms to make proteins and nucleic acids, it must first be fixed into a usable form such as nitrates.
    True or False
    True
  31. A salmon migrates from the ocean to freshwater rivers to spawn. Which of the following best describes what type of environment the salmon moves from and into?
    A. Hypotonic to Hypertonic
    B. No change
    C. Hypertonic to Hypotonic
    D. Isotonic to Hypertonic
    C. Hypertonic to Hypotonic
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  32. What open water zone is near shore and over the continental shelf?
    A. Oceanic zone
    B. Littoral zone
    C. Hadal zone
    D. Neritic zone
    D. Neritic zone
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  33. Movement of a substance along a concentration gradient where substances move from higher concentration to lower concentration is called:
    A. Diffusion
    B. Active transport
    C. Osmosis
    D. Pressure-flow
    A. Diffusion
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  34. Diffusion of water across a semipermeable membrane is called:
    A. Osmosis
    B. Telekinesis
    C. Active profusion
    D. Active transport
    A. Osmosis
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  35. What is needed for living matter to function?
    A. Proteins
    B. Sugars
    C. Energy
    D. Oxygen
    C. Energy
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  36. Chemosynthesis is the main method of binding energy into carbohydrates on the planet.
    True or False
    False
  37. Photosynthesis requires energy in what form in order to convert inorganic carbon dioxide into glucose molecules?
    A. Electrical
    B. Sunlight
    C. Chemical bonds
    D. Nuclear
    B. Sunlight
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  38. Hydrothermal vent communities depend on chemosynthesis in order to capture energy and convert inorganic molecules into glucose molecules.
    True or False
    True
  39. Most biological productivity in the ocean occurs in the aphotic zone.
    True or False
    False
  40. On average, the ocean has a higher primary productivity at 150 gC/m2/year than land at 120gC/m2/yr.
    True or False
    False
  41. Which of the following is NOT one of the four factors that influence primary production?
    A. Heterotrophs
    B. Sunlight
    C. Water
    D. Inorganic nutrients
    E. Carbon dioxide
    A. Heterotrophs
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  42. Which of the four factors that influence primary production are limiting in the oceanic environment?
    A. Inorganic Nutrients
    B. Both B and C
    C. Water
    D. Both A and B
    E. Sunlight
    B. Both B and C
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  43. A trophic pyramid describes who eats whom, and in general, from one level to the next, what percentage is transferred?
    A. 25%
    B. 90%
    C. 10%
    D. 50%
    C. 10%
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  44. Which of the following elements are found in all organic molecules?
    A. Silicon
    B. Carbon
    C. Nitrogen
    D. Phosphorus
    E. Iron
    B. Carbon
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  45. Primary production varies with latitude and with season.
    True or False
    True
  46. High energy coasts tend to be
    a. Erosional
    b. Selectively straightened
    c. Depositional
    d. Where Sand Spits form
    Erosional and Selectively straightened
  47. The transport of sediment along the beach is due to
    A. Onshore transport
    B. Offshore currents
    C. Longshore currents
    D. Upshore transport
    C. Longshore currents
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  48. Berms, berm crests, and longshore bars are all features of:
    A. Fjords
    B. Longshore currents
    C. Depositional coastlines
    D. Erosional coastlines
    C. Depositional coastlines
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  49. A fjord is
    A. a headland with a hole in it
    B. a long, narrow, steep-sided, flooded coastal valley
    C. a glacier
    D. a short, wide, shallow, flooded coastal valley
    B. a long, narrow, steep-sided, flooded coastal valley
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  50. Barrier islands are exposed sandbars parallel to the coast, form when sediments accumulate on submerged rises paralleling the shoreline.
    True or False
    True
  51. _______ is the area where ocean meets the land and _______ is the larger zone affected by the processes that occur at that boundary.
    A. wetland; estuary
    B. beach; shore
    C. shore; coast
    D. coast; shore
    C. shore; coast
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  52. A coral reef coast is a product of living organisms.
    True or False
    True
  53. What is usually the highest point on a beach?
    A. Berm crest
    B. Longshore bars
    C. Beach scarp
    D. Backshore
    A. Berm crest
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  54. What is a factor that is instrumental in shaping an erosional coast?
    A. Dissolution of acids and bases
    B. All of the choices
    C. Wind-driven grit abrasion
    D. Stream erosion
    B. All of the choices
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  55. What is a coastal cell?
    a. A section of coastline that has a balance of input and output of sand
    b. An active section of coastline
    c. A section of coastline that is heavily influenced by an atmospheric cell above
    d. A current that conducts sediments towards the shore
    a. A section of coastline that has a balance of input and output of sand
  56. What is the term for global, long term-change to sea level?
    A. Active change
    B. Passive change
    C. Eustatic change
    D. Temporal change
    C. Eustatic change
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  57. Which of the following are NOT factors of Eustatic change?
    A. Tectonic Motion
    B. Temperature of the water
    C. Volume of the oceans container
    D. Movement of the longshore current
    E. Amount of water in the ocean
    D. Movement of the longshore current
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  58. What type of coastline has sea caves, blowholes, sea arches and sea stacks?
    A. A depositional beach
    B. A low-energy beach
    C. An erosional beach
    D. A passive beach
    C. An erosional beach
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  59. What is the name for a relatively old coast that are steadily growing due to their sediment accumulation?
    A. Depositional coasts
    B. Passive coasts
    C. Erosional coasts
    D. Active coasts
    A. Depositional coasts
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  60. How much of the United States coastline is considered to be depositional?
    A. 80%
    B. 30%
    C. 60%
    D. 10%
    B. 30%
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  61. What type of reef is a ring-shaped island of coral with a lagoon at its center?
    A. Barrier
    B. Atoll
    C. Mangrove
    D. Fringing
    B. Atoll
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  62. Seawalls increase the amount of erosion along the shore because they deflect wave energy.
    True or False
    True
  63. Global glaciation events does not create variations in local sea level changes.
    True or False
    False
  64. During the ______ sand on a depositional beach accumulates and during the ______ the sand erodes from the beach and is moved to an offshore location.
    A. spring; summer
    B. summer; winter
    C. winter; summer
    D. winter; spring
    B. summer; winter
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  65. Chesapeake Bay is an example of:
    A. A fjord
    B. A tectonic valley
    C. A barrier island
    D. A drowned river valley
    D. A drowned river valley
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  66. The moon has a greater effect on the Earth's tides than the sun because
    A. its density is much greater than the sun's
    B. it is much closer to the Earth than is the sun
    C. it is always between the Earth and the sun
    D. it is solid and the sun is just a mass of burning gas
    B. it is much closer to the Earth than is the sun
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  67. The two largest tide-generating forces on earth are
    A. gravitational pull of the moon and centrifugal force
    B. gravitational pull of the sun and centrifugal force
    C. wind drag due to the Earth’s rotation and centrifugal force
    D. gravitational pull of the moon and sun
    D. gravitational pull of the moon and sun
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  68. Spring tides occur when
    A. melting of the snow and ice makes water levels high
    B. the Moon is 90° out of alignment with the Sun and the Earth
    C. the Earth is closest to the Moon
    D. the Earth, Moon and Sun are all in alignment
    D. the Earth, Moon and Sun are all in alignment
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  69. Neap tides
    A. occur every week
    B. occur one week after spring tides
    C. are completely flat
    D. correspond to the new and full moons
    B. occur one week after spring tides
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  70. The central point, or node, for a tide in an ocean basin where little change in vertical height is measured is known as the:
    A. Ebb Tide
    B. Amphidromic point
    C. Flood Tide
    D. Tidal bore
    B. Amphidromic point
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  71. A tide with two unequal high water marks each tidal cycle is called
    A. diurnal tide
    B. slack water
    C. mixed semidiurnal tide
    D. semidiurnal tide
    C. mixed semidiurnal tide
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  72. In a region with semidiurnal tides, if a high tide occurs at midnight (12 AM), the next low tide will occur at
    A. 12:25 PM
    B. 12:50 AM the following day
    C. 6:37 PM
    D. 6:12 AM
    D. 6:12 AM
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  73. In a region with diurnal tides, if a high tide occurs at midnight (12 AM), the next high tide will occur at __________________.
    A. 6:37 PM
    B. 6:12 AM
    C. 12:25 PM
    D. 12:50 AM the following day
    D. 12:50 AM the following day
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  74. A wave of water moving up a river, initiated by tidal action and normal resonances within a river estuary, is called ________________.
    A. A tidal current
    B. A tidal gyre
    C. A tidal bore
    D. A tidal wave
    C. A tidal bore
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  75. The tidal cycle is 24 hrs 50 minutes long because the moon rises 50 minutes later each day.
    True or False
    True
  76. True amphidromic systems do not develop in narrow basins because there is no space for rotation.
    True or False
    True
  77. When high or low tidal currents begin to change direction, it is called:
    A. Ebb water
    B. Slack water
    C. Flood water
    D. Stagnant water
    B. Slack water
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  78. What organism uses the tides, specifically high spring tides, to time their breeding behaviors?
    A. Harbor seals
    B. Grunion
    C. Salmon
    D. Bottlenose dolphins
    B. Grunion
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  79. What is the tidal datum in reference to in regions with mixed tides?
    A. Mean lower low water (MLLW)
    B. Tidal range (TR)
    C. Mean low water (MLW)
    D. Mean tide (MT)
    A. Mean lower low water (MLLW)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  80. What is the relationship between the heights of tides and the amphidromic point?
    A. Heights increase closer to the amphidromic point
    B. Heights decrease with distance from the amphidromic point
    C. Heights increase with distance from the amphidromic point
    d. All of the above
    C. Heights increase with distance from the amphidromic point
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  81. What type of current occurs during a high tide?
    A. Ebb current
    B. Flood current
    C. Slack water
    D. Tidal influx
    B. Flood current
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  82. What is an ebb current?
    A. The rise in sea level as a tide crest approaches
    B. The fall in sea level as a tide trough approaches
    C. The rise in sea level as a tide trough approaches
    D. The fall in sea level as a tide crest approaches
    B. The fall in sea level as a tide trough approaches
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  83. The east coast of the United States receives two high tides and two low tides of roughly the same heights per day. What kind of tidal pattern is this?
    A. Flood tides
    B. Semidiurnal tides
    C. Ebb tides
    D. Diurnal tides
    B. Semidiurnal tides
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  84. Tides can have a wavelength equal to one tenth of the Earth’s circumference.
    True or False
    False
  85. High tides are associated with the area between bulges.
    True or False
    False
  86. A wavelength is determined by the:
    A. time between two successive wave crests.
    B. horizontal distance between two wave crests.
    C. height between the wave crest and wave trough.
    D. horizontal distance between a wave crests and trough.
    B. horizontal distance between two wave crests.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  87. The time it takes for a wave to move a distance of one wavelength is known as
    A. Progressive wave.
    B. Wave frequency.
    C. Wavelength.
    D. Wave period.
    D. Wave period.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  88. The wave you surf on in California may have come from the middle of the Pacific. What has been transmitted across the ocean basin?
    A. water
    B. energy
    C. a surface current
    D. wind
    B. energy
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  89. The vertical distance between a wave crest and the adjacent trough is the wavelength.
    True or False
    False
  90. A wave that is moving through water deeper than one-half of the wavelength are known as deep water waves.
    True or False
    True
  91. The slowing and bending of waves as they approach the shore from an angle is called wave reflection.
    True or False
    False
  92. A wave that cannot “feel” the bottom is a ________________.
    A. deep water wave.
    B. seismic sea wave.
    C. transitional wave.
    D. shallow-water wave.
    E. forced wave
    A. deep water wave
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  93. The two types of waves that are always or almost always deep water waves are ____________ and _____________.
    a. wind waves ; seiche.
    b. seiche ; tsunami.
    c. capillary waves; wind waves.
    d. tsunami ; tides.
    c. capillary waves; wind waves.
  94. The factors necessary to make a really large wind wave are _____________, ___________, and ___________.
    A. disturbing forces and restoring forces
    B. disturbing forces and wind forces.
    C. wind strength, wind duration, and wind sheer
    D. wind strength, wind duration, and fetch
    D. wind strength, wind duration, and fetch
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  95. The abrupt bulge of water driven ashore by a tropical cyclone (hurricane) is called a ___________.
    A. tsunami.
    B. standing wave.
    C. seiche.
    D. storm surge.
    D. storm surge.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  96. Which of these lists is arranged in order from smallest wavelength to longest wavelength?
    A. capillary wave, wind wave, tsunami, tides
    B. tides, capillary wave, tsunami, wind waves
    C. wind waves, capillary wave, tsunami, tides
    D. capillary wave, tsunami, wind waves, tides
    A. capillary wave, wind wave, tsunami, tides
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  97. Wind waves are examples of orbital waves in which:
    A. Particles of water do not move
    B. Particles of water move vertically straight down until ½ the wavelength before returning to the surface
    C. None of the choices are correct
    D. Particles of water move in closed circles
    D. Particles of water move in closed circles
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  98. Progressive waves and orbital waves involved movement of water particles until a depth of one quarter the wavelength.
    True or False
    False
  99. A wind wave of 20-meter wavelength will act as a _____ if it is passing through water MORE than 10 meters deep.
    A. Gravity wave
    B. Deep-water wave
    C. Shallow-water wave
    D. Deep-water wave Transitional wave
    B. Deep-water wave
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  100. A strong wind that blows continuously in one direction for almost three days will create the maximum wave size theoretically possible for a wind of specific strength, duration, and fetch.
    A. Wind strength
    B. Tsunami
    C. Rogue Wave
    D. Fully developed sea
    D. Fully developed sea
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  101. ____ waves occur in the ocean at the base of the pycnocline, especially at the bottom edge of a steep thermocline.
    A. Internal
    B. Wind
    C. Tidal
    D. Standing
    A. Internal
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  102. A tsunami can be caused by:
    A. Volcanic eruption
    B. Asteroid impacts
    C. Landslides
    D. All of the choices
    D. All of the choices
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  103. Often a dangerous consequence of Tsunamis is that the trough of the wave occurs first and subsequently attracts people to explore further offshore.
    True or False
    True
  104. Modern tsunami warning systems depend on:
    A. All of the choices.
    B. Seabed Seismometers
    C. Satellites
    D. Submerged devices
    A. All of the choices
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  105. What, in December of 2004, was one of the worlds worst natural disasters on record, killing nearly 300,000 people in all.
    A. The San Francisco Earthquake
    B. The Sumatran Tsunami
    C. The Qiantang River Bore
    D. Hurricane Katrina
    B. The Sumatran Tsunami
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)

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