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Political institutions- Posner
- are the formal rules, regulation and policies that structure social and political interactions.
- they help to determine which ethnic cleave becomes political silent .
- they shape the repertoires of potentially mobilizable ethnic identities that individuals possess
- they shape peoples incentives for selecting one of the potentially salient ethnic ids rather than another and then coordinate those choices across individuals so as to produce a society level outcome
- the humanity devised constraints that shape human interaction: shape norms of behavior
- they matter because the usefulness of any coalition will depend on the boundaries of the arena in which political competition is taking place and these boundaries are products of institutional rules.
- religions, language, due to history, govern policy and childhood socialization. inventory of ethnic group memberships that individuals process - one from each cleave dimension
- inventory of all the group memberships that individuals pocess
- then chose salient one for politics,
- political actors can choose to compare sizes of groups and benefits of affiliation with one or another
- The political institutions determine what ID is salient
- what is it about your experiences that shape what is salient
- if feel and ID is neglected by an insitution then becomes salient
- tiebout resolution of the heterogeneity problem (multiple groups in public fiancee, problem that heterogeneity creates for public good provision.) was that people can sort themselves into communities that provide the public goods they want
- Problems: restricted # of communities, multidimensional nature of public goods, limitations to mobility, economies of scale, and legal constraints to extreme segregation.
- social externalities raised by the inequality lititature
- the heterogenous preferences with a community will not disappear in shorting
- not an option to many problems
- separating different ethnic or racial groups into separate homogenous groups.
- contrast to areas with ethnically diverse areas
Ethnic party- Ferree
- Chandra Definition: is a party that overtly represents itself as a champion of the case of one particular ethnic category or set of categories to the exclusion of other and that makes such a representation central to its strategy of mobilizing voters
- principles: ascription, exclustion and centrality
- time specific classification
- always explicitly IDs the category that is excluded
Ethnic Segregation- Kasara
- unequal distribution of ethnic groups across regions
- importance: intolerance btw groups, where as heterogenious areas are more tolerant
- draws on contact theory
Ethnic conflict- varshney
- varshney: that civil society stuctures set up by differing political histories shape the degree of ethnic conflict/ violence. (the more 2 groups interact the less likely that when a big event happens they will have conflict/ violence together.
- not measured well, violence and ethnic conflict two different things
- must measure ethnic peace
- theory: in resource scarcity/ compition: it should predict that every place that is ethnically diverse should have conflict. barth: land scarcity or specify resources.
- Feron: ethnic conflict is nonmontonic, when middling levels or diversity, middle conflict
- head counting? Chandra: voters in a patronage-dem, choose between parties by conducting ethnic head counts rather than comparing policy platforms or ideological positions. they prefer a party that gives them the greatest representation of their co-ethnics. only vote for preferred party when big enough #s to take winning or influential position.
- importance: ethnic demography and profiles of parties are an important variable in structuring expectation of probable outcomes
- Ferree: in SA rave predicted the outcome of the election “racial census.”
- people use racial heuristics: voters use racial credentials of parties as a shortcut to help predict how a candidate will behave in office.
- racial cues have been very valuable to voters in new democracies.
- instrumental approach, not the emotional attachment of voters to racially exclusive parties
- race as basis of prejudice and cues
- Findings: that people dont vote by expressing their racial or ethnic identity but by voting based on who they think will enact the policies that will be best for them. people use party heuristic to vote in down ticket races
- pacialized party images play a critical role in shaping south african voting behavior. racial credentials driving force in driving racial census pattern. but people dont ID in racial terms. political actors use racial IDs to get votes. Racial census will only erode if political factors change, not ID
policy polarization drives not raceparties racial credentials drive racial census
Ethnic Peace- Varshney
- the pre existing local networks of civic engagement btw 2 communities are the most imporatant cause for peace or violence
- made up of associtional and everyday forms of civic engagement if intercommunial
- institutional frameworks can be linked to one or the other based on it they privilege ethnic accommodation or ethnic polarization. ?
- Ethnic peace should be conceptualized as an institutional channeling and resolution of ethnic conflict.
- it should be visualized as the absence of violence not as an absence of conflict.
peace and conflict can occur under the same circumstances instuttional frameworks are the town boards, leaders who are monitoring the rumors.
Ethnic cleavage- Posner
- is a a category set: language race, religon
- allow people to sort other and gain entry themselves into ethnic categories
- depends on the saliency- which political systems create.
- Posner argues that the cleave that emerges as salient is the aggregation of all actors individual decisions about the identity that will best serve them and these are constrained by the se the actors are choosing from and the formal institutional rules that govern political competition which makes some ids more advantageous than others.
- horowitz: individuals in polyethnic country, seek affirmation of self worth though their IDs as members of group, thus vote to affirm ID
- racial voting that results in voters using vote to express their ID as members of racial groups, not vote over policy
- voting this way may be against your interest
- voting without regard to the expected outcome?
- Party ID non negotiable
- elections become a Rubber stamp for demographics- counting of heads
- prejudice key factor in voting—> symbolic racism
- social identity theory, whose good make you good.
Racial Heuristics- Ferree
- voters use racial credentials of parties as a shortcut to predict how a candidate will preform in office
- know what policies I want and vote based on prediction of race, they will vote for the policies I want
- you can be wrong in your heuristic
- not expressive voting, policies drive voting
- another party may see that a heuristic is helpful and try to find a candidate that fits that heuristic
- use party heuristic to vote in down ticket races
- tie to varshney: its the local and regional that determines the level of conflict
- instead of looking just at fergusun we must also look at ladue, the primary white neighborhood
- why is laud have higher per capita income, and lower poverty rate? and how does this sorting occur?
- cause each local municipality has the authority to set sowing laws, collects taxes ands spend on residents only
- they limit population density
Collective action problem (free rider) (alesina)
- individual members of a group often have little incentive to contribute to the provision of a public good that will benefit all members of the area (people from other groups)
- if diverse area less incentive to pay for public goods, or collectively act to get them
- indivs dislike mixing across ethnic lines (marriage)
- individs from dif ethnic groups have dif policy prefs (national defense vs education)
- idvids prefer public goods benefiting their own groups
- scholars don’t study as much cause racist
- more social cohesion with in ethnic groups= better social sanctioning of free riders (ethnic groups have this social cohesion)
Bridging social capital- varshney and ferguson
- social capital: social networks and norms of reciprocity (having ones back) that facilitate coordination and cooperation
- bonding: criminal gang, refers to the value assigned to social networks in homogenous groups
- bridging: softball leauge. (anyone can join) interacting with parents of kids of class: bonding is just interacting with teachers. its the result, getting real reciprocity.
- brindign is not always good.
- smith tryign to deal with racism.
- important: contact theory, trust the persons ethnic group.
- Postmodernists emphasize the construction of group categories by the knowledge elite, its promotion by centers of power, and its effect on “the people”.
- formation of ethnic or national IDs is a modern phenomenon
- unites construtivism and postmodernism
- IDs in premodern times tended to be face-to-face and operated on a small scale, not beyond their local environment
- modernization brought IDs to the masses: made IDs and communities wider andmore institutionalized
- 3 claims:
- that power relations are deeply implicated in the formation of knowledge that much of what passes for objective or scientific knowledge, especially in the human sciences, is basically a narrative constructed by the knowledge elite and promoted by the institutions of power; and that such narratives create social, political, and cultural effects of their own.
- civic life: the part of our life that exists between the state on one hand and families on the other, that allows people to come together for a whole variety of public activities, that is relatively independent of the state.
- is not a non-political but a non-state space of collective life.
- is can cover both social and political activities. . political parties constitute part of this only in multiparty democracies but not in a one-party system.
- refers to the space in a given society that exists between the family level and the state level, makes interconnections between individuals or families possible, and is independent of the state. modern and voluntaristic associations.
- ethnic groups are a given
- tries to insure that minorities will receive representation
- all are PRs
- ethnic minorities pose an acute danger to democratic stability when they are excluded from participating in formal political institutions
- if you give the access/ power they will feel obliged to keep the system going
- Def: form of gov that emphasizes power sharing thru guaranteed rep(gender quota, ethnic reservation, PR Gov)
- Lijpharts The basic thesis: in order to be successful and to preepmt or reduce ethnic conflict, democracy in a plural society requires elite compromise. A plural society is defined as one in which the various ethnic groups are segmeneted and have little criss-crossing. Elite compromise can best be assured by a political system that works on intergroup consensus, not intergroup competition. A consensual democracy of this kind can be called consociational. It has 4 features: a grand coalition of ethnic leaders in government, a mutual veto given to each, group proportionality in decision making positions, and segmental autonomy with respect to matters such as education, language and personal laws.
- can be bad: reify ethnic divisions, what if demographic changes, when do you change the #s?
Consensus view of democracy
- power should be dispersed among as many political parties/ groups as possible
- as aposed to majority forms of democracy where power should be concentrated in the hands of the majority
- this is the theory: concosoicalitionlism is the result or implementation
- DEF: a quota- or divisional based electoral system employed in multi-member districts
- to bring closer the discrepency btw vote share/ seat share
- the seats won in gov are proportional to the votes cast
- not about population you have to vote
- political parties not racial groups
- has to be:
- multimember district
- has to be qouta based, or threshold based rule of who get the seat
- non-rival: if one person consomes it, it doesn’t prohibit another consumption of the good
- non exludable: can’t prohibit non contributors from consuming it
- National defense, public parks, clean air, public radio
- Identities can impact the level of equal access= example of two different neighborhoods.
- problem with the provision is the the need to provide the public good, or the logic of collective action.