Science Chapter 12

Card Set Information

Science Chapter 12
2015-01-23 14:53:22
science nelsh

Science chapter12 electricity
Show Answers:

  1. Direct current (DC)
    current in which charged particles travel through a circuit in only one direction

  2. alternating current (AC)
    • A current in which electrons move back and forth in a circuit
    • -ised for moving large amount of electricity
    • -electron net movement is 0

  3. transformer
    • Electrical device that changes the size of potential difference of an alternating current
    • -only for AC

  4. Circuit breaker
    A safety device that is placed in series with other circuits that lead to appliances and outlets

  5. fuse
    A safety device that is found in older buildings and some appliances; like a circuit breaker, it is placed in the series with other circuits that lead to appliances and outlets

  6. Electrical power
    The rate at which an appliance uses electrical energy
  7. watt (W)
    • Unit of electrical power;
    • 1 kW = 1000 W
  8. kilowatt (kW)
    • A practical unit of electrical power;
    • 1 kW = 1000 W
  9. electrical energy
    The energy that is used by an appliance at a given setting; is determined by multiplying its power rating by the length of time it is used
  10. kilowatt-hour (kW-h)
    The practical unit of electrical energy
  11. Energuide label
    A label that gives details about how much energy an appliance uses in one year of normal use

  12. smart meter
    a meters that records the total electrical energy used hour by hour and sends this information to the utility company automatically

  13. time of use pricing
    A system of pricing in which the cost of each kWxh of energy used is different at different times of the day

    -electricity is less expensive at night usually because there is less demand 
  14. phantom load
    The electricity that is consumed by an appliance or device when it is turned off

    e.g. light on a TV that is off
  15. efficiency
    The ratio of useful energy output to total energy output, expressed as a percentage

    nuclear power plants are 94.9% efficiency (they lose 5.1% of energy in the process)
  16. base load
    The continuous minimum demand for electrical power

    -met with hydroelectric and nuclear power
  17. hydroelectric power generation
    The production of electricity using a source of moving water
  18. intermediate load
    A demand for electricity that is greater than the base load

    -met by burning coal and natural gas
  19. peak load
    The greatest demand for electricity

    -met by using hydroelectric power and natural gas
  20. renewable energy source
    A source of energy that can be replaced in a relatively brief period of time

    e.g. wind, hydro, geothermal
  21. non-renewable energy source
    A source of energy that cannot be replaced as quickly as it is used

    e.g. coal, nuclear, biomass
  22. solar energy
    Energy that is directly converted from the energy of the sun into electricity

    -converted using solar panels
  23. photovoltaic effect
    The generation of a direct current when certain materials are exposed to light

    -used in solar panels
  24. biomass energy
    Energy that is generated from plant and animal matter