# Science Chapter 12

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 Author: NelsH ID: 287874 Filename: Science Chapter 12 Updated: 2015-01-23 14:53:22 Tags: science nelsh Folders: Description: Science chapter12 electricity Show Answers:

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1. Direct current (DC)
current in which charged particles travel through a circuit in only one direction

2. alternating current (AC)
• A current in which electrons move back and forth in a circuit
• -ised for moving large amount of electricity
• -electron net movement is 0

3. transformer
• Electrical device that changes the size of potential difference of an alternating current
• -only for AC

4. Circuit breaker
A safety device that is placed in series with other circuits that lead to appliances and outlets

5. fuse
A safety device that is found in older buildings and some appliances; like a circuit breaker, it is placed in the series with other circuits that lead to appliances and outlets

6. Electrical power
The rate at which an appliance uses electrical energy
7. watt (W)
• Unit of electrical power;
• 1 kW = 1000 W
8. kilowatt (kW)
• A practical unit of electrical power;
• 1 kW = 1000 W
9. electrical energy
The energy that is used by an appliance at a given setting; is determined by multiplying its power rating by the length of time it is used
10. kilowatt-hour (kW-h)
The practical unit of electrical energy
11. Energuide label
A label that gives details about how much energy an appliance uses in one year of normal use

12. smart meter
a meters that records the total electrical energy used hour by hour and sends this information to the utility company automatically

13. time of use pricing
A system of pricing in which the cost of each kWxh of energy used is different at different times of the day

-electricity is less expensive at night usually because there is less demandÂ
The electricity that is consumed by an appliance or device when it is turned off

e.g. light on a TV that is off
15. efficiency
The ratio of useful energy output to total energy output, expressed as a percentage

nuclear power plants are 94.9% efficiency (they lose 5.1% of energy in the process)
The continuous minimum demand for electrical power

-met with hydroelectric and nuclear power
17. hydroelectric power generation
The production of electricity using a source of moving water
A demand for electricity that is greater than the base load

-met by burning coal and natural gas
The greatest demand for electricity

-met by using hydroelectric power and natural gas
20. renewable energy source
A source of energy that can be replaced in a relatively brief period of time

e.g. wind, hydro, geothermal
21. non-renewable energy source
A source of energy that cannot be replaced as quickly as it is used

e.g. coal, nuclear, biomass
22. solar energy
Energy that is directly converted from the energy of the sun into electricity

-converted using solar panels
23. photovoltaic effect
The generation of a direct current when certain materials are exposed to light

-used in solar panels
24. biomass energy
Energy that is generated from plant and animal matter

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