307 midterm 2 ch. 5

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307 midterm 2 ch. 5
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  1. Visual and auditory preference
    • - 8in visually
    • - prefer human voice vs nonspeech sounds
    • -prefer mother's voice
  2. age people can differentiate people visually
    3 months
  3. social smile
    • - 3 weeks begins
    • - 4-6 weeks emerges
    • - Infant’s smile in response to an external social stimulus.
  4. what international factors affect communication?
    • -parenting stress
    • -child temperament
    • - they affect how the children learn vocabulary (receptive and expressive)
  5. types of gaze
    1. mutual gaze/ dyadic gaze (looking at each other): signals intensified attention

    2. turns into gaze coupling @ 3 mo.: turn taking interaction- making & breaking eye contact
  6. development of intentionality
    • - 7-12 months
    • - goal directedness: share goals with others, considering the audience
    • - will respond differently to their interactional partner: staying close to caregiver, following her movements, becoming distressed if she leaves
    • - can follow conversation cues
    • - imitate simple motor behaviors (wave bye-bye)
    • - follow maternal pointing and glancing
  7. age infants imitate simple motor behaviors (part of intentionality)
    • - "wave bye-bye"
    • - 8-10 mo.
  8. inonational patterns (part of intentionality)
    • - 7-12 mo.
    • - parents can pick up infant intonational patterns that convey request, frustration, greeting, and pleasant surprise.
  9. Table 5.2:  Development of Intentionality
    • 1. Stage 1: Perlocutionary @ 0-8 mo.
    • - no goal awareness (no intentionality)
    • - attend s to and responds to stimuli
    • 2. Stage 2: Illocutionary @ 8-12 mo.
    • emergence of intenionality
    • - coordinated plan to achieve goals
    • -gestures
    • -brings obj. to caregiver for help
    • -climbs for desired objects
    • 3. Stage 3: Locutionary @ 12+ mo.
    • - words accompany/replace gestures/ gestures + vocalization
    • -symbolic interaction
  10. Figure 5.2 : Infant Standardized Gestures
    • 1. Showing: Toddler holding object tightly so partner may view
    • 2. Giving: Toddler holding object in open hand for partner to take
    • 3. Pointing: Toddler pointing at object, or event of interest
    • 4. Requesting: Toddler leaning and reaching for desired object
  11. Table 5.3
    0-3 months
    • 1. maintains eye contact while feeding. < if
    • they only focus on the moving part (mouth), they might have autism

    • 2. Smile at a familiar face.
    •    
    • 3. A mother’s lack of bonding has an effect on the
    • baby.

    • 4. Crying for attention
    •   
    • 5. Interested in people, but not objects
  12. Table 5.3

    3 mo.
    1. Pick up a rattle

    2. Imitate a face

    • 3. If they hear a familiar voice,
    • they will stop to listen

    • 4. Discrimination between a harsh and
    • soothing voice

    • 5. Begin to vocalize= making sounds
    • (cooing)

    • 6. Cry when they are hungry
    • (different from other cries)

    • 7. They will play with their voice to
    • try it out
  13. Table 5.3

    3-6 mo.
    • 1.    
    • Smile at several members of the family

    • 2.    
    • Stop crying when you speak to them

    • 3.    
    • Show difference responses to family members

    • 4.    
    • Maintain eye contact longer

    • 5.    
    • Smile at themselves in the mirror

    • 6.    
    • Reach for objects

    • 7.    
    • Bang objects together to play

    • 8.    
    • Put things in their mouths

    • 9.    
    • Turn their head toward a voice

    • 10.  Recognize
    • their own name

    • 11.  Respond
    • to “no!” at least half of the time

    • 12.  Laugh,
    • babble, vocalize in response to singing

    • 13.  Play
    • with their voice

    • 14.  Attempt
    • to interact with an adult
  14. Table 5.3

    6-9 mo
    • 1.    
    • Will come with a “come here”

    • 2.    
    • Will be more lively with other familiar people

    • 3.    
    • May show separation anxiety

    • 4.    
    • During play- will participate in games with
    • adults (ex. Peekaboo). Looking and waiting is a turn

    • 5.    
    • Interact with objects without mouthing or
    • banging them

    • 6.    
    • Search for hidden objects (will know that things
    • are still there even though they are covered- cognition)

    • 7.    
    • Will reach for themselves in the mirror

    • 8.    
    • Will know family member’s names

    • 9.    
    • Respond with gesture (or initiation- putting
    • their arm up to show they want to be picked up)

    • 10.  Attend
    • to music or singing

    • 11.  Will
    • respond to “No!” most of the time

    • 12.  9
    • mo. Expect them to wave in response to “bye-bye”

    • 13.  Vocalize
    • 4 different syllables and 2 syllable combinations (uh-oh)

    • 14.  Imitate
    • reduplicated syllables (mama, papa)

    • 15.  Will
    • try to sing

    • 16.  Will
    • shout to get attention
  15. Table 5.3

    9-12 mo.
    • 1.    
    • Fear with strangers

    • 2.    
    • Perform for social attention

    • 3.    
    • Will vocalize to call other people

    • 4.    
    • Vocalize when they are bored

    • 5.    
    • They will try out peekaboo

    • 6.    
    • They will cry if you take away something they
    • like

    • 7.    
    • Push a toy car (appropriate play with toys)

    • 8.    
    • Give me (familiar objects) – will give

    • 9.    
    • Can follow simple commands occasionally

    • 10.  12
    • mo. Know 2 body parts

    • 11.  Saying
    • “mama, papa, dada” meaningfully

    • 12.  Imitate
    • consonant/vowel combinations (go, no, etc)

    • 13.  Use
    • a name to call a specific person

    • 14.  Imitate
    • the name of familiar objects ex. “ba” for “ball”
  16. Table 5.3

    12-15 mo.
    • 1.    
    • Imitate other kids (peer group)

    • 2.    
    • Initiate turn-taking routines

    • 3.    
    • Shake their head for “no”

    • 4.    
    • Hug (show affection) dolls, stuffed animals,
    • etc- pretend play

    • 5.    
    • Explore toys- symbolic play (“talking” on cell)

    • 6.    
    • Will understand 1-step commands

    • 7.    
    • Like rhymes and songs

    • 8.    
    • “give me ____” , will understand it

    • 9.    
    • Should know 3 body parts on themselves/doll

    • 10.  Say/Imitate
    • up to 8-10 words

    • 11.  Vary
    • their pitch

    • 12.  Produce
    • animal sounds (meow, woof-woof, etc)

    • 13.  Sing
    • independently

    • 14.  Asking
    • to have their needs made (juice! Cookie!)
  17. Table 5.3

    15-18 mo.
    • 1.    
    • Point to show objects (vs. just gesturing)

    • 2.    
    • Will play ball with adult- roll it back and
    • forth

    • 3.    
    • Place one object inside another (nesting cups)

    • 4.    
    • Taking things in and out of containers (pots out
    • of the drawers)

    • 5.    
    • Hand toys to people (do this- initation)

    • 6.    
    • 6 body parts\

    • 7.    
    • Will know shoes and socks at least

    • 8.    
    • 18 mo.- understand 15 words. Consonants t,d,n,h,

    • 9.    
    • Gesture for objects

    • 10.  Imitate
    • words

    • 11.  18
    • mo. Will tell you “more” (should be coupled with something else- more /j/ for
    • juice)

    • 12.  Will
    • ask “what’s that?”
  18. Table 5.3

    18-21 mo
    • 1.    
    • Pragmatically- will take turns in a conversation

    • 2.    
    • Dialog more adult-like (may say 3-4 things about
    • a certain objects)

    • 3.    
    • Will lead their caregiver to an object

    • 4.    
    • Sing and dance

    • 5.    
    • Imitate housework

    • 6.    
    • Can put two objects together for pretend play
    • (horse + farmer)

    • 7.    
    • Will understand “sit down” and “come here”

    • 8.    
    • Begin to understand the meaning of action words
    • (verbs vs just nouns)

    • 9.    
    • Identify pictures by name (touch the horse)

    • 10.  Using
    • single words frequently

    • 11.  Have
    • intonation patterns

    • 12.  Beginning
    • to use 2 word phrases (“all done” “let’s go”)
  19. Table 5.3

    21-24 mo.
    • 1.    
    • Indicate when they have a toileting need – will
    • show that they are uncomfortable (will get a diaper or just want to be changed)

    • 2.    
    • Fly a toy plane or push a little stroller

    • 3.    
    • Put away toys on request “clean up”

    • 4.    
    • Try to repair broken toys

    • 5.    
    • 2 step commands

    • 6.    
    • Understanding phonemes

    • 7.    
    • 2 word phrases frequently

    • 8.    
    • 50 different words that they use

    • 9.    
    • May refer to themselves by name (Brian go vs I
    • go)

    • 10.  24
    • mo Mean length of utterance 1.25- 1.50 MPU

    • 11.  Will
    • show attachment “mine”

    • 12.  Pretend
    • to write

    • 13.  Pretend
    • to talk on the phone

    • 14.  “give
    • me five”

    • 15.  Use
    • most of their toys appropriately

    • 16.  Know
    • at least 4 action words in pictures (show me sleeping)

    17. Understand size – big and little
  20. Table 5.3

    24mo.
    • 1.    
    • Mean length of utterance ~1.5- 2.5

    • 2.    
    • Will use action words

    • 3.    
    • Use of 3 word phrases will become frequent
  21. vocab: *bracketing (w/clustering)
    @ 8 mo. Process of breaking a speech stream into analyzable units by detecting end points or divisions through the use of intonational cues = figure out where words end at pauses
  22. vocab: *clustering (w/bracketing)
    @ 8 mo. Process of breaking speech stream into analyzable units based on predictability of syllables and phoneme structures. = figuring it out by the way it sounds (syllables and phonemes)
  23. vocab: communication intention
    Purpose ofan utterance, i.e., to gain information, request permission, or provide information.
  24. vocab: joint action
    Shared action sequences of mother and child,often routines. Provide basis for many scripts.
  25. vocab: mutual gaze
    Eye contact with a communication partner; used to signal intensified attention
  26. vocab: protoconversation
    Vocal interactions between mothers and infants that resemble the verbal exchanges of more mature conversations.
  27. vocab: referencing
    Differentiation of one entity from many;noting the presence of a single object,action, or event for one’s communication partner
  28. vocab: script
    Scaffolding or predictable structure of an event that provides “slots”f or participation and aids comprehension.
  29. vocab: social smile
    Infant’s smile in response to an external social stimulus.
  30. Theory of Mind
    the understanding of the mental states and behaviors of others
  31. Functions of maternal speech
    1. gain infant’s attention

    2. establish emotional bonds

    • 3. provide earlier opportunities for
    • communication
  32. Table 5.5 : Characteristics of Infant-directed Speech
    • 1.    
    • Short utterance length (mean utterance length as
    • few as 2.6 morphemes) and simple syntax

    • 2.    
    • Small core vocabulary,usually object centered

    • 3.    
    • Topics limited to here and now

    • 4.    
    • Heightened use offacial expressions and gestures

    • 5.    
    • Frequent questioning and greeting

    • 6.    
    • Treating ofinfant behaviors as meaningful:Mother
    • awaits infant’s turn and responds even to nonturns

    • 7.    
    • Episodes of maternal utterances

    • 8.    
    • Paralinguistic modifications of pitch and
    • loudness

    • 9.    
    • Frequent verbal rituals
  33. joint reference
    @ 6-12 mo. the ability to share a common focus on something (people, objects, a concept, an event, etc.) with someone else. It involves the ability to gain, maintain, and shift attention.

    routinized actions= joint action. They let a child encounter rules within a pleasurable experience. From game playing and routines, a child learns turn-taking and conversational skills.
  34. How many words @ 18 mo?
    50

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