Electricity Chapter 12 Glossary Terms

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Electricity Chapter 12 Glossary Terms
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2014-11-03 22:39:12
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  1. Direct Current (DC)
    Def: The current from a cell in which charged particles in a circuit only travel in one direction from the negative terminal to the positive terminal.

    E.g. remote, cell phone, camera, anything that uses batteries and cells.

                   
  2. Alternating Current (AC)
    Def: Electrons can move back and forth but there is no net movement of electrons in either direction.

    E.g. fridge, washer, blender, toaster, anything that needs to be plugged into a wall outlet.
  3. Transformer
    Def: A transformer is used to change the potential difference of an alternating current to the potential difference needed.

    - There are 2 types of transformers a step-up transformer, and a step-down
  4. Circuit Breaker
    Def: A circuit breaker limits the amount of current in a circuit to prevent overheating in wires.

                  
  5. Fuse
    Def: Limits the amount of current to set values, prevents over-heating in wires.
  6. Electrical Power
    Def: The rate an appliance consumes energy measured in watts (W) or kilowatts (kW).
  7. Watt (W)
    Def: A unit of power, corresponding to the power in an electric circuit.

    - Equivalent to one joule per second
  8. Kilowatt (kW)
    Def: A measure of 1,000 watts of electrical power.
  9. Electrical Energy
    Def: Energy used by any appliance at given settings measured in kilowatt-hours (kW.h).
  10. Kilowatt-Hour (kW.h)
    Def: A measure of electrical energy that is equivalent to the power consumption of 1,000 watts or 1 kW for a total of 1 hour.
  11. EnerGuide Label
    Def: A label giving details on how much energy an appliance ends up using after 1 year with normal use.

  12. Smart Meter
    Def: A device with a meter that records the total electrical energy used hourly and has the ability to send this information to the utility company automatically.

  13. Time of Use Pricing
    Def: A pricing system in which the of kW.h of energy is different based on the time of the day.
  14. Phantom Load
    Def: Electricity that is consumed even when an appliance or device is turned off.

    E.g. TV's, clock displays, external power adaptors all require a phantom load

    - An easy way to prevent this is to unplug the appliance
  15. Efficiency
    Def: The ratio of useful energy output to the total energy being input, this is expressed as a percentage.
  16. Base Load
    Def: The continuing minimum demand of electrical power.

    - The minimum amount of electrical power needed in Ontario is 12 000 MW.

    - 1 MW = 1 megawatt = 106W

    - The base load is met by using nuclear power plants
  17. Hydroelectric Power Generation
    Def: The production of electrical power through the use of the gravitational force of falling or flowing water.

  18. Intermediate Load
    Def: A demand for electricity that is considerably greater than the base load and can be met by burning coal and natural gas.

    - The intermediate load is met by generating stations that burn fossil fuels
  19. Peak Load
    Def: The largest and highest demand for electricity which can be met by using hydroelectric power and natural gas.

    - The peak load is met by using hydroelectric power or burning natural gas
  20. Renewable Energy Source
    Def: An energy source that can be easily replaced in a relatively short duration of time.

    E.g. Wind power, Hydropower, Solar energy, Biomass, Biofuel, Geothermal energy

  21. Non-Renewable Energy Source
    Def: A source of energy that cant be replaced as quick and fast as it is consumed.

    E.g. nuclear fuel, coal burning.

  22. Solar Energy
    Def: Solar power is the conversion of sunlight into electricity, using panels to convert the energy from the sun to electricity.

    - renewable source of energy

  23. Photovoltaic Effect
    Def: The creation of voltage or electric current in a material upon exposure to light.

  24. Biomass Energy
    Def: Biomass is fuel that has been developed from organic materials, it is a renewable and sustainable source of energy used to create electricity and other forms of power.

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