Glossary terms chapter 12

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Glossary terms chapter 12
2014-11-03 19:11:20
Maxim Frumkin MaximFrumkin

SCIENCE glossary terms
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  1. Direct current (DC)
    Current in which charged particles travel through a circuit in only one direction
  2. Alternating current
    Current in which electrons move back and forth in a circuit
  3. Transformer
    An electrical device that changes the size of the potential difference of alternating current
  4. Circuit breaker
    • A safety device that is placed in series with other circuits,  which lead to appliances and outlets
    • limits the amount of current to a set value
  5. Fuse
    • Found in older buildings and appliances
    • A safety device that is placed in series with other circuits,  which lead to appliances and outlets
    • limits the amount of current to a set value
    • need to be replaced each time
  6. Electrical power
    The rate at which an appliance uses electrical energy
  7. Watt (W)
    • A unit of electrical power
    • Joule/second
  8. Kilowatt (kW)
    • A practical unit of electrical power
    • 1 kW = 1000 W
  9. Electrical energy
    • the energy that is used by an appliance at a given setting
    • power rating of appliance × length of time it is used
  10. Kilowatt-hour (kW•h)
    the practical unit of electrical energy
  11. EnerGuide label
    a label that gives details about how much energy an appliance uses in one year of normal use
  12. Smart meter
    a meter that records the total electrical energy used hour by hour and sends this information to the utility company automatically
  13. time of use pricing
    a system of pricing in which the cost of each kW•h of energy used is different at different times of the day
  14. Phantom load
    • The electricity that is consumed by an appliance or device when it is turned off
    • appliances with clocks have a phantom load
  15. Efficiency
    • The ratio of useful energy output to total energy input as a percentage
    • =useful energy output/total energy input × 100%
  16. Base load
    • The continuous minimum demand for electrical power
    • met with Nuclear and hydroelectric generated energy
  17. Hydroelectric power generation
    The generation of electrical power using a source of moving water
  18. Intermediate Load
    A demand for electricity that is greater than the base load and is met by burning coal and natural gas
  19. Peak load
    The greatest demand for electricity,  which is met by burning natural gas and using hydroelectric power
  20. Renewable energy source
    A source of energy that can be generated in a relatively short period of time
  21. Non-renewable energy source
    A source of energy that cannot be replaced as quickly as it is used
  22. Solar energy
    Energy that is directly converted from the sun into electricity
  23. Photovoltaic effect
    The generation of a direct current when certain materials are exposed to light.
  24. Biomass energy
    Energy that is generated from plant and animal matter