# Glossary terms chapter 12

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1. Direct current (DC)
Current in which charged particles travel through a circuit in only one direction
2. Alternating current
Current in which electrons move back and forth in a circuit
3. Transformer
An electrical device that changes the size of the potential difference of alternating current
4. Circuit breaker
• A safety device that is placed in series with other circuits,  which lead to appliances and outlets
• limits the amount of current to a set value
5. Fuse
• Found in older buildings and appliances
• A safety device that is placed in series with other circuits,  which lead to appliances and outlets
• limits the amount of current to a set value
• need to be replaced each time
6. Electrical power
The rate at which an appliance uses electrical energy
7. Watt (W)
• A unit of electrical power
• Joule/second
8. Kilowatt (kW)
• A practical unit of electrical power
• 1 kW = 1000 W
9. Electrical energy
• the energy that is used by an appliance at a given setting
• power rating of appliance × length of time it is used
10. Kilowatt-hour (kW•h)
the practical unit of electrical energy
11. EnerGuide label
a label that gives details about how much energy an appliance uses in one year of normal use
12. Smart meter
a meter that records the total electrical energy used hour by hour and sends this information to the utility company automatically
13. time of use pricing
a system of pricing in which the cost of each kW•h of energy used is different at different times of the day
• The electricity that is consumed by an appliance or device when it is turned off
• appliances with clocks have a phantom load
15. Efficiency
• The ratio of useful energy output to total energy input as a percentage
• =useful energy output/total energy input × 100%
• The continuous minimum demand for electrical power
• met with Nuclear and hydroelectric generated energy
17. Hydroelectric power generation
The generation of electrical power using a source of moving water
A demand for electricity that is greater than the base load and is met by burning coal and natural gas