Health Chapter 2
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Define physical activity
Any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that results in energy expenditure
Define physical fitness
the ability to perform moderate to vigorous levels of physical activity without undue fatigue
planned or structured physical activity done to maintain fitness
General Physical Activity Guidelines for Fitness: Adults (time, intensity, ect.)
150 min/well moderate intensity or 75 min/week or vigorous intensity. Plus muscle strengthening activities for all major muscle groups at least 2 days/week
General Physical Activity Guidelines for Fitness: Children (time, intensity, ect.)
60 minutes of moderate or vigorous intensity physical activity daily. Include muscle strengthening activities in the 60 minutes 3 days/week
Characteristics of Moderate Activity (and examples)
- You can talk, but not necessarily hold an entire conversation.
- 70-80% maximum heart rate.
- Ex: walking 3-4.5 mph, weight training, hiking, stairs, biking 5-9 mph, dancing, softball, swimming, house/yard work
Characteristics of Vigorous Activity (and examples)
- You cannot talk and you are using all of your oxygen for respiration. Over 80% of maximum heart rate.
- Ex: jogging, running, circuit training, backpacking, aerobic classes, competitive sports, biking 10 mph on an incline
- Metabolic equivalent to determine the amount of energy (oxygen) used by the body during physical activity.
- *1 MET = resting/sitting
- *2 MET = twice the energy of 1 MET
What are the 5 Health-related Components of Fitness?
- 1. Cardiorespiratory Endurance
- 2. Muscular Strength
- 3. Muscular Endurance
- 4. Flexibility
- 5. Body Composition
Define Cardiorespiratory Endurance
Aerobic fitness - the ability of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems to provide oxygen to working muscles during sustained exercise
Define Muscular Strength
The ability of your muscles to exert force
Define Muscular Endurance
The ability of your muscles to contract repeatedly overtime. Allows you to participate in recreational sports without undue fatigue.
The ability to move your joints in a full range of motion, commonly overlooked.
Define Body Composition
The relative amounts of fat and lean tissue in your body. Lean tissue consists of muscle, bone, organs, and fluids.
What are the 6 Skill-Related Components of Fitness?
- 1. Agility
- 2. Balance
- 3. Coordination
- 4. Power
- 5. Speed
- 6. Reaction Time
The ability to rapidly change the position of your body with speed and accuracy
The maintenance of equilibrium while you are stationary or moving
The ability to use your senses and your body to perform motor tasks smoothly
The ability to perform work or contract muscles with high force quickly.
The ability to perform a movement in a short period of time.
Define Reaction Time
The time between a stimulus and the initiation of your physical reaction to that stimulus.
What are the 6 Principles of Training (or fitness)?
- 1. Overload
- 2. Progression
- 3. Specificity
- 4. Reversibility
- 5. Individuality
- 6. Rest & Recovery
Training effects, dose response, diminished returns
The 10 percent rule. To increase fitness, you need to continually increase the workout.
Training target muscle groups. If the goal is to run, don't spend time lifting weights.
All fitness gains are reversible, "use it or lose it"
Responders, non-responders. Training may vary greatly from person to person. No two people will have the same results.
Define Rest & Recovery
Constant training can result in reduced health benefits. Schedule regular rest days (1-3 per week) or alternate hard workout days and easier workout days.
What is the FITT principle?
- F - Frequency
- I - Intensity
- T - Time
- T - Type
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