anthro exam 2

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anthro exam 2
2014-11-03 07:05:42

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  1. Ethnicity
    Identification with one ethnic group and exclusion from others. Derived from language, history, cultural traditions
  2. ascribed status
    Social status based on little or no choice. Ex: age, usually race and gender too
  3. achieved status
    Social status based on choices, actions, efforts, talents, or accomplishments and may be positive or negative. Ex: occupation, legal status, father, student
  4. convergent evolution
    Similar selective forces produce similar adaptive traits. Ex: birds and bats both have wings, small size, and light bones to adapt to flight
  5. Homologies
    Similarities jointly inherited from a common ancestor Ex: skeletal structure of whales and humans
  6. analogies
    Adaptive traits due to convergent evolution. Ex: the wings, small sizes, and light bones of things adapted to flight
  7. sexual dimorphism
    Marked difference in male and female anatomy and behavior. More marked in terrestrial than in arboreal species of primate. Ex: sexual dimorphism not present in unicorns, who are indistinguishable between genders
  8. brachiation
    Under-the-branch swinging. Gibbons and young apes do this.
  9. trends in primate evolution
    Grasping ability (opposable thumb [thumb can touch all fingers]), smell loses importance to sight, nose loses importance to hands, increased brain complexity, parental investment, sociality
  10. arboreal
    Living in trees. Tend to be smaller primates. Lithe and agile. Escape from predators with speed and alertness. Less sexual dimorphism. More speciation. More isolated. Smaller social groups.
  11. terrestrial
    Ground dwelling. Tend to be larger primates. Better for dealing with predators. Greater sexual dimorphism. Large social groups -> troops.
  12. New World monkeys
    Platyrrhines. Flat nosed. All arboreal. Legs and arms move in parallel. Most have tails. Live in the forests of central and south America. Prehensile.
  13. Old World monkeys
    Catarrhines (includes OWmonkeys, apes, and humans). Orthograde (upright) posture. Big, rough butt pillows (ischial callositie). Both terrestrial and arboreal.
  14. prehensile tail
    grasping tail. New World Monkeys have these. Sometimes they are tactile so they can feel with them.
  15. hominid; hominin
    all members of human lineage, after diverging from ancestral apes
  16. bipedalism
    Two-footed; upright locomotion (of hominins). Eliminates foot grasping ability
  17. foramen magnum
    “Big Hole” at the base of the skull is the space through which the spinal cord passes. Location farther forward corresponds with greater bipedalism.
  18. Connection between dentition and diet
    Big back teeth, smaller canines and first premolars, and thick enamel for chewing gritty tough, fibrous vegetation. Long sharp front teeth for piercing fruits.
  19. interconnection between biological change and culture
    Better tools->better hunters, anatomical changes: modern skeleton, bigger brain, fire led to smaller teeth
  20. early hominins
    Ardipithecus Kadabba (5.8MYA) oldest hominin to date; Ardipithecus Ramidus (4.4MYA); Australopithecus Anamensis(4.2MYA) discovered by Leakyes; Australopithecus Afarensis(3.8MYA) More Leakeys, “Lucy”, hominin with apelike features; A. Africanus(3MYA) gracile(smaller, more slender); A. Boisei(2.6MYA) Robust; A. Robustus(2MYA) Robust;
  21. genus Homo
    Homo Habilis (1.9MYA) first tool user, more leaakeys, Oldowan Pebble tools; Homo Erectus(1.9MYA) Lower Paleolithic, moved beyond Africa to europe and asia, Acheulian tools (hand axe), modern skeleton, bigger brain and pelvis, fire->smaller teeth; Archaic Homo Sapiens (300,000 BP) Middle Paleolithic, blades and composite tools.
  22. Neandertal
    130,000-28,000 BP, Mousterian Tools
  23. hominin chronology
    Ardipithecus Kadabba, Ardipithecus Ramidus, A. Anamensis, A. Afarensis, A. Africanus, A. Robustus, A. Boisei, Homo Habilis, H. Erectus, H. Sapiens, H. Neandertalensis
  24. burakumin
    a stigmatized group in Japan. Low social status based on “unclean” occupations (dealing with dead stuff). Segregated neighborhoods.
  25. Upper Paleolithic cave-painting
    Earliest from 36000 years ago. More than 100 sites known, mostly in france and spain. Depictions of their prey: wolly mammoths, wild cattle, horses, deer, reindeer. Interpretations: for magic and ritual surrounding the hunt to ensure success, a magical human attempt to control animal reproduction (like ceremonies of increase by native Australians), to keep track of history. Paintings occur in clusters and overlapping.
  26. tool traditions and associated hominins
    Habilis:Oldowan Pebble Tools; Erectus:Acheulian; Sapiens:blades and composite tools; Neandertal:Mousterian.
  27. relative dating methods
    Date relative to something else, lower stuff is older, ex: stratigraphy
  28. absolute dating methods
    age of something in and of itself. Ex: carbon dating, molecular dating, dna analysis
  29. stratigraphy
    Study of earth sediments deposited in demarcated layers (strata). The deeper the older.
  30. biases in the fossil record
    hard things preserve better than soft, large fossils easier to see, low oxygen environments: environmental bias, geological activity uncovers fossils: temporal bias. Limited access.
  31. hunting and gathering (foraging),
    People rely on food naturally available for their subsistence, rather than controlling the reproduction of plants and animals. Gathering dominant, mobility, division of labor by gender, social distinctions based on age, egalitarianism, food sharing and cooperation.
  32. Horticulture
    Production of plants without technology, often with slash-and-burn cultivation. Ex: Tsembaga people and their pigs.
  33. Agriculture
    Same piece of land cultiveated permanently with technology: plowing, domesticated animals, irrigation
  34. pastoralism
    depends on herds of domesticated animals. Ex: bassari
  35. market exchange
    maximizing material gain, supply and demand
  36. Reciprocity
    Exchange between social equals, who are normally related by kinship, marriage, or other close personal ties. Three types: Generalized reciprocity, balanced reciprocity, and negative reciprocity.
  37. Generalized reciprocity: exchange among closely related individuals. Someone gives to another person and expects nothing concrete or immediate in return. Altruistic. Ex: parental gift giving
  38. Balanced reciprocity: Midpoint on reciprocity continuum, between generalized and negative reciprocity. The giver expects something in return of equal value.
  39. Negative reciprocity: Potentially hostile exchanges with people outside or on the fringes of their social systems. Negotiation involved. Attempt to get something for nothing. Ex: stores
  40. chiefly redistribution
    flow of goods into center, then back out; characteristic of chiefdoms.
  41. egalitarianism
    Status differences are not inherited. All status is based on age, gender, and individual qualities, talents, and achievements. Common among foragers with band and tribe organization. Example: Inuit, Ju/’hoansi, San, and Yanomami
  42. Ranked status distinction
    Status differences are inherited and distributed along a continuum from the highest-ranking member (chief) to the lowest without any breaks. Commong among horticulturists, pastoralists, and some foragers. Commonly used in chiefdoms and some tribes. Ex: Native American Groups of the Pacific Northwest, Olmec
  43. Stratified status distinction
    Status differences are inherited and divided sharply between distinct noble and commoner classes. Commonly used in states with agriculture. Ex: Inca, Rome, US, Great Britain.
  44. Big Man
    Generous tribal entrepreneur with multivillage support. Regional figure found among tribal horticulturalists and pastoralists. The big man occupies no office but creates his reputation through entrepreneurship and generosity to others. Neither his wealth nor his position passes to his heirs.
  45. chief
    Formal authority, has power to inflict punishment, in chiefdoms.
  46. bands
    Basic unit of social organization among foragers. A band includes fewer than 100 people; it often splits up seasonally. Decentralized. Egalitarian. Nuclear families. Inuit song duel.
  47. tribes
    For of sociopolitical organization usually based on horticulture or pastoralism. Socioeconomic stratification and centralized rule are absent in tribes, and there is no means of enforcing political decisions. Usually egalitarian.
  48. chiefdoms
    Form of sociopolitical organization intermediate between the tribe and the state; kin-based with differential access to resources and a permanent political structure. Less internal violence. Surplus of goods, redistribution.
  49. states
    Sociopolitical organization based on central government and socioeconomic stratification- a division of society into classes.
  50. potlatch
    competitive feast among Indians on the North Pacific Coast of North America. Redistribution of goods.
  51. segmentary lineage organization
    Found in the Nuer. Alliance that can be activated during conflict, has a leopard skin chief as mediator. Looks like all those arcs within each other, those under the arcs are allied.
  52. slash-and-burn cultivation
    technique used in horticulture, where you slash down trees and brush and burn it. Ash makes great fertilizer
  53. transhumance
    One of two variants of pastoralism; part of the population moves seasonally with the herds while the other part remains in the home villages
  54. nomadism
    Movement throughout the year by the whole pastoral group (men, women, children) with their animals; more generally, nomadism is movement throughout the year in pursuit of strategic resources
  55. sodalities
    groups that extend across the whole tribe, spanning several villages. Nonkin-based groups with regional political significance. Ex: men of a certain age form a fighting force
  56. affinal kin
    Relatives by marriage
  57. consanguineal kin
    Relatives by blood
  58. cross-cousins
    Children of a brother and sister
  59. parallel cousins
    the children of two brothers or two sisters
  60. bridewealth
    Substantial gifts to the wife’s family from the husband’s group to compensate them for the loss of her companionship and labor. Correlates with higher female status
  61. dowry
    Substantial gifts to husband’s family from the wife’s group, correlates with lower female status
  62. family of orientation
    Nuclear family in which is born and grows up
  63. family of procreation
    Nuclear family in which one marries and has kids
  64. marriage
    A socially recognized union. Marriages are for caring for children, regulating sexual relations, establishing rights and obligations, forging alliances. A social institution that reflects local social and cultural relations.
  65. Matrilineal
    Descent is traced through women only
  66. matrilocal
    Residence after marriage with wife’s kin group
  67. patrilineal
    descent is traced through men only
  68. patrilocal
    Residence after marriage with husband’s kin group
  69. lineal kin
    Ego’s direct ancestors and descendants
  70. collateral kin
    non-lineal relatives
  71. incest taboo
    prohibit sexual relations between close relatives because of biological or cultural reasons. “marry out or die out”
  72. Endogamy
    Rule or practice of marriage between people of the same social group
  73. exogamy
    Rule requiring people to marry outside the own group
  74. three attributes of language:
    cultural transmission(learning language from others), productivity(combining signs to make meaningful new expressions), displacement(the ability to refer to things that aren’t present).
  75. nuclear family
    Father, mother, children
  76. “ego” (on a kinship chart)
    The individual whose lineage is being traced, to determine what to call people
  77. kinship chart symbols
    circle=female, triangle=male, square=ambiguous, double line=marriage, vertical single line=descendant, struck through double line=divorce, crossed out shape=deceased. Left to right=older to younger
  78. polygamy
    plural marriage
  79. polygyny
    a variety of plural marriage in which a man has more than one wifey
  80. polyandry
    Variety of plural marriage in which a woman has more than one husband
  81. functions of kinship
    Kinship systems reflect the closeness and significance of rights and obligations between people and groups. Shared substance (Name, blood, food, etc). Structures relationships, connects groups and incorporates strangers, basis for mutual aid. NUTSHELL: Socialization, Transmission of property (inheritance), Transfer of social position (succession), provide aid
  82. il-rah
    Bassari tribal road, migratory path