Oral Anatomy 2b - The Maxillary Permanent Canine
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Generally, what are the canines like?
- Canines are the only teeth in the dentition with a single cusp.
- Morphologically, they can be considered transitional between incisors and premolars.
- Like the incisors, the crowns of the canines are roughly triangular in shape when viewed mesially or distally, and trapezoidal buccally and lingually.
How does the maxillary permanent canine appear?
- This is a stout tooth, with a well developed cingulum and the longest rood of any tooth.
- It is thought that the pointed shape of the canine tooth is related to an increase in size of a central mammelon at the expense of mesial and distal mammelons.
- Prominent longitudinal ridges pass from the cusp tip down both the labial and palatal surfaces.
How does the maxillary permanent canine appear from the incisal aspect?
Viewed from its incisal aspect, it appear asymmetric.
How do the mesial and distal portions of the crown of the maxillary permanent canine differ?
If a plane is envisaged passing through the apex of the cusp to the cingulum on the palatal surface, then the distal portion of the crown is much wider than the mesial portion.
What is a frequent morphological variation for the maxillary permanent canine?
A relatively frequent variation in the morphology of the incisal ridge is the development of an accessory cusp on its distal arm.
What is the labial
surface of the maxillary permanent canine like?
- The labial surface of the canine is marked by the longitudinal ridge, which extends from the cusp towards the cervical margin.
- The incisal part of the crown occupies at least one-third of the crown height.
- Note that, from this view, the mesial arm of the incisal margin is shorter than the distal arm, and the distoincisal angle is more rounded than the mesioincisal angle.
How do the mesial and distal profiles appear for the maxillary permanent canine?
- The profiles of the mesial and distal surfaces converge markedly towards the cervix of the tooth.
- The mesial profile is slightly convex, the distal profile markedly convex.
- The mesial surface of the crown forms a straight line with the root, the distal surface meets the root at an obtuse angle.
How does the palatal surface appear for the maxillary permanent canine?
- The palatal surface shows distinct mesial and distal marginal ridges and a well defined cingulum.
- The longitudinal ridge from the tip of the cusp meets at the cingulum and is separated from the marginal ridges on either side by distinct grooves or fossae
How does the maxillary permanent canine appear when viewed mesially or distally?
Viewed mesially or distally, the distinctive feature is the stout character of the crown and the great width of the cervical third of both the crown and root.
What is the cervical margin and the root like for the maxillary permanent canine?
- The cervical margin of this tooth follows a course similar to that of the incisors but the curves are less pronounced.
- The curvature of the cervical margin on the distal surface is less marked than that on the mesial surface.
- The root is largest and stoutest in the dentition and is triangular in cross section (its labial surface being wider than its palatal surface.
- The mesial and distal surfaces of the root are often grooved longitudinally.
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