Microbiology

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Author:
kaori
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287998
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Microbiology
Updated:
2014-11-22 01:21:07
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Specific Acquired Immunity
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Specific Acquired Immunity
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  1. Antibodies are also known as _____, abbreviated Ig.
    Immunoglobulins
  2. The _____ ____ site is exposed when classes IgG or IgM antibodies are attached to their antigen; it is covered up when they are not attached to their antigen.
    Complement Activating
  3. Interleukin 1 is a ______ that induces fever by signaling the hypothalamus.
    Pyrogen
  4. ______ 1 is a pyrogen that induces fever by signaling the hypothalamus.
    Interleukin
  5. During clonal expansion the TLymphocytes, a lymphokine called MAF (Macrophage Activating Facor) makes macrophages "angry" (even more aggressive than usual), increasing their _____.
    Phagocytosis
  6. Any secondary exposure to an antigen results in high levels of antibodies in a few days instead of a few weeks because there is no ____ period needed to "process" the antigen.
    Inductive
  7. Tlymphocytes secrete perforin and _____ onto their target cell; perforin enables ____ to enter the cell where it activates caspase enzymes; the result is apoptosis of the target cell.
    Granzyme
  8. The bottom region of the heavy chains of classes IgD and IgE antibodies is called the ____ ____ site.
    Membrane Anchoring
  9. In an antibody molecule, the bottom 1/2 of each light chain and the bottom 3/4 of each heavy chain is the same for all antibodies in each class; these regions are called the _____ regions. The _____ regions are the same for all antibodies in each class.
    Constant
  10. Once a macrophage has processed an antigen, it secretes Interleukin _____ to attract TH Lymphocytes. Also, MHC _____ is a self antigen located on the surface of all nucleated cells that matches the CD8 receptor on TLymphocytes.
    One
  11. Specific immunity is not innate, but learned following "_____" with antigen, either by getting a disease or a vaccination.
    Experience
  12. TLymphocytes secrete perforin and granzyme onto their target cell; perforin enables granzyme to enter the cell where it activates _____ enzymes; the result is apoptosis o the target cell.
    Caspase
  13. ____ (such as polyethylene) are large, foreign molecules, that don't have antigenic determinants; Even though they are foreign, we don't react to them so they can be used to replace damaged calves and joints.
    Plastics
  14. MAF stands for " Macrophage _____ Factor"; it is a lymphokine that makes macrophages "angry" increasing their phagocytosis.
    Activating
  15. To initiate both humoral and cellular immunity, a macrophage must ______ the antigen; it accomplishes this by phagocytizing the antigen and expelling the antigenic determinants on its surface along with its MHC I self antigens.
    Process
  16. _____ (also known as immunological tolerance) refers to the ability to distinguish "self" from "non self".
    Immunocompetence
  17. To attract TLymphocytes, Interleukin I is released by macrophages (which started out as monocytes); Thus, IL-1 is a cytokine called a _____.
    Monokine
  18. The bottom region of the _____ chains of classes IgD and IgE antibodies is called the membrane anchoring site.
    Heavy
  19. There are two ways to develop specific resistance against an organism; vaccination or actually having the _____.
    Disease
  20. When ____ ____ sites of classes IgG or IgM antibodies are not attached to their antigen, the complement activating sites are covered up.
    Antigen Binding
  21. The "DH" in TDH Lymphocytes stands for the words _______ hypersensitivity; these "memory" cells are involved in reaction to poison ivy as well as rejection of transplanted cells.
    Delayed
  22. MHC _____ is an antigen located on the surface of macrophages and B Lymphocytes that matches the CD4 receptors on TLymphocytes. 
    Two
  23. B Lymphocytes with class ____ antibodies on their surface are called "memory cells".
    IgD
  24. The "S" in TLymphocytes stands for the word _____; these cells are responsible for the downgrade of the specific immune response once the antigen is gone.
    Suppressor
  25. The _____ on the heavy chains of the antibody molecule allow the "arms" to move up, thereby exposing the complement activating site.
    Hinges
  26. During ____ immunity, Interleukin II (also called enhancing factor) attracts B Lymphocytes and TLymphocytes and promotes their proliferation by clonal expansion.
    Humoral
  27. Plasma cells have a huge amount of rough ER; this is important because antibodies are proteins, and _____ ('protein factories' of a cell) are located on rough ER.
    Ribosomes
  28. "NK" stands for the words ____ ____; these leukocytes attack and destroy any antibody-coated cells (such as tumor cells, infected cells, or foreign cells) by having receptor sites to the constant region of IgG "labels"on these cells.
    Natural Killer
  29. Interleukin II is a cytokine released by excited TLymphocytes, so it is also called a ______.
    Lymphokine
  30. During humor immunity, Interleukin ____ (also called enhancing factor) attracts B Lymphocytes and TLymphocytes and promotes their proliferation by clonal expansion.
    Two
  31. T Lymphocytes are made in the red bone marrow from hemocytoblast stem cells, but they mature in the _____.
    Thymus
  32. TLymphocytes secrete perforin and ____ onto their target cell; perforin enables ____ to enter the cell where it activates caspase enzymes; the result is apoptosis of the target cell.
    Granzyme
  33. ALL T Lymphocytes have CD ____ receptors.
    Three
  34. Class IgE antibodies are located on the surface of mast cells or basophils; they trigger ____ and histamine release if and when they encounter their antigen.
    Degranulation
  35. On an antibody molecule, the two ends composed of heavy and light chain tips are called the ____ _____ sites because these are where the antibody attaches to its antigen.
    Antigen Binding
  36. Associative recognition refers to the fact that in both humoral and cellular immunity, TLymphocytes must interact with antigenic determinants together with MHC II antigens on the ____ surface (like a "double handshake").
    Macrophage
  37. ____ Factor (CF) released by activated Tlymphocytes signals more macrophages to come over.
    Chemotactic
  38. Immunocompetence (also known as immunological _____) refers to the ability to distinguish "self" from "non self".
    Tolerance
  39. T lymphocytes are made in the red bone marrow form ____ stem cells, but they mature in the thymus.
    Hemocytoblast
  40. ____ immunity is associated with the tissues and is due to the production of "trained" armies of T Lymphocytes.
    Cellular
  41. Antibody classes IgG, IgE, and IgD all have _____ antigen binding sites.
    Two
  42. An antibody molecule contains two ____ polypeptide chains composed of approximately 220 amino acids each.
    Light
  43. Antigens are also called _____, because they stimulate an immune response.
    Immunogens
  44. Venoms, drugs, plant extracts, albumin, exotoxins, and endotoxins are all examples of ______ antigens.
    Soluble
  45. Class ____ antibodies are nicknamed our "secretory" antibodies because they are found in all body secretions, especially mucus.
    IgA
  46. TLymphocytes have CD4 receptors on their surface and are often referred to as T _____ Lymphocytes.
    Four
  47. Class ____ antibodies are composed of two antibody units joined by a J chain; they have four antigen binding sites; nicknamed "secretory antibodies" due to their presence in body secretions.
    IgA
  48. The bottom region of the ____ chains of classes IgD and IgE antibodies is called the membrane anchoring site.
    Heavy
  49. Activated B Lymphocytes become _____ _____ with a huge amount of rough ER; this is important because antibodies are proteins, and ribosomes ('protein factories' of a cell) are located on rough ER.
    Plasma Cells
  50. Macrophages and TLymphocytes have CD ____ receptors which match the gp120 spike of HIV.
    Four
  51. During clonal expansion of the Tc Lymphocytes, a lymphokine malled MIF (Macrophage _____ Factor) keeps macrophages from leaving.
    Inhibiting
  52. The "C" in TLymphocytes stands for the word _______; once "trained", these cells secrete perforin and granzyme onto their target cell; pperforin enables granzyme to enter the cell where it activates caspase enzyme; the result is apoptosis of the target cell.
    Cytotoxic
  53. TLymphocytes secrete _____ and granzyme onto their target cell; ____ enables granzyme to enter the cell where it activates caspase enzymes; the result is apoptosis of the target cell.
    Perforin
  54. When circulating _____ leave the blood and enter the tissues, they become macrophage.
    Monocytes
  55. The ____ system is a functional system that recognizes foreign molecules and acts to immobilize, neutralize, and destroy them.
    Immune
  56. The _____ regions of a heavy and a light chain of a antibody molecule form an antigen binding site.
    Variable
  57. ____ immunity is associated with the body fluids and is due to the production of soluble proteins called antibodies.
    Humoral
  58. A protein strand called the ____ chain holds the five antibody units of a large IgM antibody or the two antibody units of an IgA together at their constant ends.
    Joining
  59. B Lymphocytes with class ____ antibodies on their surface are called "memory cells".
    IgD
  60. ____ enzymes are nicknamed the "executioner" proteins of a cell; they are activated by granzyme.
    Caspase
  61. The "H" in TLymphocytes stands for the word _____; these cells are involved in developing both humoral and cellular immune responses.
    Helper
  62. Sensitized B Lymphocytes that do not mature into plasma cells remain as ____ _____ with class IgD antibodies on their surface.
    Memory Cells
  63. The anamnestic response is proof of immunological _____ (the immune systems's recognition of a previously encountered antigen); re-exposure to an antigen results in high antibody levels in a few days instead of a few weeks.
    Memory
  64. Class ____ antibodies are the first class of antibodies made by plasma cells because they are so effective.
    IgM
  65. Acquired immunity is also known as ____ immunity because it is directed at one particular invader at a time.
    Specific
  66. Natural Killer cells have receptor sites to the _____ region of IgG "labels" on foreign cells.
    Constant
  67. ____ are soluble proteins formed in humoral response to the presence of an antigen; they recognize it, bind to it, and cause its destruction.
    Antibodies
  68. Gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) in humans is called _____ _____.
    Peyers Patches
  69. Antibody classes IgG, IgE, and _____ all have two antigen binding sites.
    IgD
  70. Class _____ antibodies are located on the surface of mast cells or basophils; they trigger degranulation and histamine release if and when they encounter their antigen.
    IgE
  71. Cellular immunity is associated with the tissues and is due to the production of T-_____ lymphocytes that are "trained" to react with foreign invaders.
    Cytotoxic
  72. Antibodies are composed of amino acids, so they are ____ molecules.
    Protein
  73. _____ immunity is not innate, but learned following 'experience' with the antigen by way of disease or vaccination.
    Acquired
  74. ___ _____ are also called epitopes; they are chemical groupings that stick out from a molecule and that make it foreign and antigenic; they are the site of recognition as well as the location of Ag/Ab reactions.
    Antigenic Determinants
  75. T Lymphocytes secrete cytokines called ____ to communicate with themselves or other cells.
    Lymphokines
  76. Class ____ antibodies are second class of antibodies made by plasma cells, following IgM production.
    IgG
  77. An activated T Lymphocyte undergoes repeated cell divisions to produce a ____ of 'competent' cells.
    Clone
  78. Class ____ antibodies are the largest in size, with five connected antibody units providing ten antigen binding sites.
    IgM
  79. _____ (also called Immunogens) are substances capable of generating an immune response (either humoral and/or cellular).
    Antigens
  80. Interleukin-I, Interleukin-II, MAF,MIF,CF,TF, and suppressor factor are all _____; chemical signals that cells use to communicate with other cells.
    Cytokines
  81. The polypeptide wrapped around the middle of class IgA antibodies that helps them get to the surface of a mucous membrane and protects them from enzyme action is called the _____ ____.
    Secretory Component
  82. A ____ shot given periodically following immunization functions in much the same way as re-exposure to a precious disease organism does, by boosting antibody levels.
    Booster
  83. Antigenic determinants are also called _____; they are chemical groupings that stick out from a molecule and that make it foreign and antigenic; they are the site of recognition as well as the location of Ag/Ab reactions.
    Epitopes
  84. Mast cells and basophils both contain granules of ____; when released, it initiates inflammation.
    Histamine
  85. A ___ is any chemical released by a cell to communicate with other cells.
    Cytokine
  86. Class ____ antibodies are small enough to leave the blood through the slits in the wall of a capillary and enter the tissues or cross the placenta.
    IgG
  87. The basic antibody molecule contains two ____ polypeptide chains composed of approximately 440 amino acids each.
    Heavy
  88. TLymphocytes have CD3 and CD ___ receptors on their surface.
    8
  89. A _____ is a foreign molecule like penicillin that is too small to be a complete antigen by itself; it can only become antigenic when attached to a carrier molecule of the body. However, once immunity develops, the presence of the ____ alone can trigger the immune response.
    Hapten
  90. _____ factor downgrades the humoral immune response in two ways; it stops any more IL-II release from TLymphocytes and it stops any  more B Lymphocytes from developing into plasma cells.
    Suppressor
  91. Class IgE antibodies are nicknamed our "____" antibodies because they are responsible for hay fever, food allergies, and hives.
    Allergic
  92. A ____ is a cytokine released by monocytes including macrophages.
    Monokine
  93. The ____ is the first cell involved in both humoral and cellular immunity by processing the antigen.
    Macophage
  94. B Lymphocytes are cells that originate in the ____ ____ ___, and then mature there or in Peyer's patches (GALT) of the intestinal wall.
    Red Bone Marrow
  95. A TLymphocyte with a pre made ____ that matches the antigen being presented by a macrophage becomes 'excited.'
    Receptor
  96. A hapten is a foreign molecule like the antibiotic _____ that is too small to be a complete antigen by itself; it can only become antigenic when attached to a carrier molecule of the body. However, once immunity develops, the presence of the happen alone can trigger the immune response.
    Penicillin
  97. Class ____ antibodies are the most abundant and the smallest in size; they can cross the placenta during the last 6 weeks of pregnancy and confer to the newborn "short-term" immunity of any diseases the mother has ever had.
    IgG
  98. Activated Tlymphocytes secrete _____ factor; this in turn causes B lymphocytes, Tand TC  Lymphocytes to undergo clonal expansion by dividing many times in quick succession to produce clones of competent cells that recognize the antigen.
    Enhancing
  99. _____ immunity is associated with the tissues and is due to the production of TLymphocytes that are "trained" to react with foreign invaders.
    Cellular
  100. Pollen, spores, dust, pieces of cells, and viruses are all examples of ____ antigen.
    Particulate

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