Science Chapter 12

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Science Chapter 12
2014-11-03 15:58:00

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  1. Direct Current (DC)
    Is the unidirectional flow of electric charge. (produced by sources such as batteries and solar cells)
  2. Alternating Current (AC)
    A current in which electrons move back and fourth in a circuit
  3. Transformer
    An electrical device that changes the size of the potential difference of an alternating current.
  4. Circuit Breaker
    A safety device that is placed in series with other circuits that lead to appliances and outlets.
  5. Fuse
    A safety device that is found in older buildings and some appliances; like a circuit breaker, it is placed in series with other circuits that lead to appliances and outlets.
  6. Electrical Power
    The rate at which an appliance uses electrical energy.
  7. Watt (w)
    A unit of electrical power; 1 kilowatt = 1000 W
  8. Kilowatt (kW)
    A practical unit of electrical power; 1kW = 1000 W
  9. Electrical Energy
    The energy that is used by an appliance at a given setting; is determined by multiplying its power rating by the length of time it is used.
  10. Kilowatt-hour (kW-h)
    The practical unit of electrical energy
  11. Energuide Label
    A label that gives details about how much energy an appliance uses in one year of normal use.
  12. Smart Meter
    A meter that records the total electrical energy used hour by hour and sends this information to the utility company automatically.
  13. Time of Use Pricing
    A system of pricing in which the cost of each kW-h of energy used is different at different times of the day.
  14. Phantom Load
    The electricity that is consumed by an appliance or device when it is turned off
  15. Efficiency
    The ratio of useful energy output to total energy input, expressed as a percentage.
  16. Base Load
    The continuous minimum demand for electrical power.
  17. Hydroelectric Power Generation
    The production of electricity using a source of moving water.
  18. Intermediate Load
    A demand for electricity that is greater than the base load and is met by burning coal and natural gas.
  19. Peak Load
    The greatest demand for electricity, which is met by using hydroelectric power and natural gas.
  20. Renewable Energy Source
    A source of energy that can be replaced in a relatively brief period of time.
  21. Non-Renewable Energy Source
    A source of energy that cannot be replaced as quickly as it is used.
  22. Solar Energy
    Energy that is directly converted from the energy of the sun into electricity.
  23. Photovoltaic Effect
    The generation of a direct current when certain materials are exposed to light.
  24. Biomass Energy
    Renewable organic materials, such as wood, agricultural crops or wastes, and municipal wastes, especially when used as a source of fuel or energy. Biomass can be burned directly or processed into biofuels such as ethanol and methane.