Science Unit Test Chapter 12 Glossary Terms

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Author:
Jlawrence
ID:
288015
Filename:
Science Unit Test Chapter 12 Glossary Terms
Updated:
2014-11-04 06:22:25
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Science Physics Electricity Chapter12
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Glossary terms for chapter 12
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  1. Direct Current (DC):
    • Current in which charged particles travel through a circuit in only one direction
  2. Alternating Current (AC):
    Current in which electrons move back and forth in a circuit
  3. Transformer:
    An electrical device that changes the size of the potential difference of an alternating current

    There are step-up and step-down transformers; step-ups increase potential difference, and step-downs decrease potential difference
  4. Circuit Breaker:
    A safety device that is placed in series with other circuits that lead to appliances and outlets
  5. Fuse:
    A safety device that is found in older buildings and some appliances; like a circuit breaker, it is placed in series with other circuits that lead to appliances and outlets
  6. Electrical Power:
    The rate at which an appliance uses electrical energy
  7. Watt (W):
    A unit of electrical power; 1 kW= 1000 W
  8. Kilowatt:
    A practical unit of electrical power; 1 kW= 1000 W
  9. Electrical Energy:
    The energy that is used by an appliance at a given setting; is determined by multiplying its power rating by the length of time the appliance is used
  10. Kilowatt-hour (kW*h):
    The practical unit of electrical energy
  11. EnerGuide Label:
    A label that gives details about how much energy an appliance uses in one year of normal use
  12. Smart Meter:
    A meter that records the total electrical energy used hour by hour and sends this information to the utility company automatically
  13. Time of Use Pricing:
    A system of pricing in which the cost of each kW*h of energy used is different at different times of the day
  14. Phantom Load:
    The electricity that is consumed by an appliance or device when it is turned off
  15. Efficiency:
    The ratio of useful energy output to total energy input, expressed as a percentage
  16. Base Load:
    The continuous minimum demand for electrical power
  17. Hydroelectric Power Generation:
    • The production of electricity using a source of moving water
    • i.e. water spinning turbines by moving through the turbines
  18. Intermediate Load:
    A demand for electricity that is greater than base load that is met by burning coal and natural gas
  19. Peak Load:
    The greatest demand for electricity, which is met by using hydroelectric power and natural gas
  20. Renewable Energy Source:
    • A source of energy that can be replaced in a relatively short period of time
    • i.e. solar, wind, geothermal, hydro, tidal, ocean wave, biofuel
  21. Non-renewable Energy Source:
    • A source of energy that cannot be replaced as quickly as it is used
    • i.e. coal, natural gas, oil, nuclear power
  22. Solar Energy:
    Energy that is directly converted from the energy of the Sun into electricity
  23. Photovoltaic Effect:
    • The generation of a direct current when certain materials are exposed to light
  24. Biomass Energy:
    Energy that is generated from plant and animal matter

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