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What is considered "toddler"?
12-36 months- the tereible twos it is an intense period of exploration; temper tantrums, and obstinacy occur frequently
Toddlers can focus on how many things at a time? Should you give them choices?
Toddler can focus on 1 thing at a time; if you give them choices, give them only two choices, not several
How much weight will they gain/ year? Birth weight should be? Height increases how much/year? Growth on a chart is considered? what changes about their physical appearance?
- birth weight is now quadrupled
- height increases about 3 in/year
- growth is steplike, not so much linear
- They lose their pot belly and lordosis and they thin out
What is considered acceptable vision acuity? how have the other senses changed? what do they use to explore environment?
- 20/40 acuity
- hearing, smell, taste and touch all increase in development
- the use of all senses are used to explore ( risk for injury, falls, drowning and poisoning)
Most physiologic systems relatively mature when?
by the end of toddlerhood
what are the common illnesses among toddlers?
upper resp tract infections, otitis media, tonsillitis
When does voluntary control of elimination occur?
sphincter control begins at age 18- 24 months; complete myelination of nervous system must occur and usually does around 18 months
What is the gross and fine motor skills that occur?
- locomotion (allow for independence), improved coordination between 2 and 3 years (tricycle),
- fine motor: improved manual dexterity: 12-15 months
- throws ball by 18 months
What is the essential anticipatory guidance for gross/fine motor development?
safe home and environment, allow them to be as independent as possible, firm but gentle discipline, extreme supervison
What is the psychosocial devel. in toddler-hood?
- Erikson: developing autonomy
- autonomy vs shame and doubt
- negativism- testing parents (give them some control saying "no" all of the time will give them sense of doubt)
- seperation anxiety: peaks
- play: parallel play ( side by side but no interaction); gross motor toys are great, imitative play, big puzzles, crayons and playdough
- ritualization provides sense of comfort
What is the cognitive development that occurs?
Piaget: sensorimotor (trial and error) and preconceptual (second half) phase; awarness of causal relationships between two events; learns spatial relationships
What is piaget's sensorimotor?
12-24 months; trial and error; imitation and exploration
what is piaget's preconceptual? what are the characteristics?
- 24mo-4 years- transition between self satisfying behavior and socialized relationships
- Charct: egocentrism, animism, irreversibly magical thinking, concentration only one thing at a time
What is the thinking of a toddler?
immature, symbolic: beginnings of concept of time
What is transductal reasoning?
they base responses on previous experiences
what is global thinking?
for a toddler, the whole experience is needed kind of like a ritual
What is the spiritual development of a toddler?
they can be comforting for the child, religious teachings and moral development influence toddler behavior (they imitate behavior not so much that they understand)
How does the development of body image increase?
refer to body parts by name, avoid negative labels about physical appearance, recognize sexual differences by age 2
What occurs with sexuality development?
exploration of genital parts, gender roles are understood by toddler, they play house