Pathology test 2

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Pathology test 2
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2014-11-03 19:27:09
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test number 2
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  1. Chpt 37:
    Fracture
    Is a break in the continuity of a bone
  2. Greenstick /fracture:
    decreased ossification low calcium, perforates one cortex and the spongy bone.
  3. Spiral fracture:
    encircles the bone, twisting fracture
  4. Pathologic fracture:
    May occur because of a disease that predisposes the bone to a fracture, Osteoporosis, infection, tumors, bone disorders
  5. Stress fractures:
    is subjected to repeat strain, makes bones stronger.
  6. Cartilage:
    is avascular needs to receive its nutrients through diffusion.
  7. Callus Formation:
    • A. hematoma formation
    • B. organization of hematoma into fibrous connection, soft procallus juicy bone.
    • C. Invasion of osteoblasts ossification callus
    • D. Remodeling is accomplished by osteoclast
  8. Sprain:
    Ligament tear occurs at any joint, wrist, ankle, elbow, and knee joints. Bone to Bone
  9. Strain:
    Muscle to bone, tear or injury to a tendon or to a muscle.
  10. Avulsion:
    is a complete separation of a tendon or ligament from its bony attachment site.
  11. Dislocation vs Subluxation:
    complete displacement of two bones, loss contact of articular cartilage.

    contact between articular surfaces is only partially lost
  12. tendinitis:
    inflammation of a tendon
  13. Tendinosis:
    Damage to a tendon at a cellular level, microtears in the connective tissue in and around the tendon.
  14. Bursitis:
    inflammation of a bursa, reactive by overuse or excessive pressure,
  15. Epicondylitis:
    inflammation of a tendon where it attaches to the bone.
  16. Tennis elbow:
    lateral epicondylitits
  17. Golfers Elbow:
    medial epicondylitis
  18. Rhabdomyolysis:
    severe muscle trauma with muscle cell loss, represents of myoglobinuria in the urine
  19. Crush syndrome:
    major shock and renal failure after a crushing injury to the skeletal muscle.
  20. Compartment syndrome:
    is a result of increased pressure within a muscle compartment. Fibrous facia that does not expand. increased pressure on the muscle tissue causes diminished capillary blood flow, resulting in tissue hypoxia necrosis.
  21. Oteoporosis:
    old bone is being reabsorbed faster than new bone is being made causing bones to lose density.
  22. ephyseal plate:
    still growing
  23. ossified:
    you have a line
  24. osteoporosis potential causes:
    • decreased levels of estrogen and testosterone most common.
    • decreased activity level 2nd most common
    • inadequate levels of vitamin d and c, nutritional
  25. Iatrogenic osteoporosis:
    caused by medication, steroids, chemo
  26. postmeopausal osteoporosis:
    decreased growth hormone, osteoblasts ad osteoclast functions, decreased amounts of estrogen,
  27. Glucocorticoid induced osteoporosis:
    chronic steroids, anti-inflammatory
  28. Osteomalacia:
    is a metabolic disease in deficiency of vitamin d lowers the absorption of calcium from the intestines. The result is soft bones. Calcification does not occur.
  29. Paget Disease: ostetitis deformans
    excessive resorption of spongy bone and accelerated formation of softened bones, disorganized, thickened bones can cause abnormal bone curvatures, brain compression, impaired motor function, pinch off of nerves.
  30. Osteomyelitis:
    • caused by staphylococcal infection, open wound, or bloodborne infection, acute and chronic inflammation, fever, pain or necrotic bone,
    • Treatment: antibiotics, surgery, hyperbaric oxygen therapy.
  31. Osteoarthiritis: synovial joints
    • disorder of the synovial joints, degeneration and loss of articular cartilage sclerosis of bone underneath the cartilage.
    • Manifestations: Pain, stiffness, enlargement of the joints, tenderness, limited motion, deformity.
  32. Rheumatoid arthritis:
    Inflammation joint disease, always inflammation, systematic autoimmune damage to connective tissue, primary in the joints, characterized by inflammatory damage, fever, leukocytosis, malaise, anorexia, and hyperfibrinogenemia. Test your body for RA or RF antibodies. Joint fluids present serous, prululent.
  33. Pathogenesis: Rheumatoid
    CD$ T helper cells and other cells in the synovial fluid become activated and release cytokines. Retention sof inflammatory cells in the joints. cycle of altered cytokine and signal transduction.
  34. Ankylosing Spondylitis:
    inflammatory joint disease of the spine or sacroiliac joints causing stiffening and fusion of the joints. systemic, immune inflammatory disease.
  35. Ankylosing cont:
    • Begins with the inflammation of fibrocartilage, particularly in the vertebrae and sacroiliac joint,
    • 2. inflammatory cells infritate and erode fibrocartilage destroy cartilage.
    • 3. as repair begins, the scar tissue ossifies and calcifies: the joint eventually fuses osteoblast comes in. Loss of normal curvature in the back.
  36. Gout:
    • Metabolic disorder that disrupts the bodys control of uric acid production or excretion.
    • `Manifests high levels of uric acid in the blood.
    • `uric acid levels high enough to crytallize big toe
  37. Gout conti:
    when these crystals occur in the synovial fluids is known as gouty arthiritis. Gout is related to purine(adenine and guanine) metabolism. Green foods help you absorb purine
  38. Gout cont 3:
    • 1. asymptomatic hyperurecemia high levels of uric acid
    • 2. acute gouty arthritis-pain
    • 3.tophaceous gout-permanent joint damage
  39. Disuse Atrophy:
    • Reduction in the normal size of muscles cells as a result of prolonged inactivity.
    • -bed rest, trauma, casting, or nerve damage atrophy
    • Treatment: isometric movements and passive lengthening exercises
  40. Fibromyalgia:
    • chronic widespread joint and muscle pain.
    • Vague symptoms increased sensitivity to touch, absence of inflammation, fatigue and sleep disturbances MS
  41. Bone Tumors: osteosarcoma
    Osteosarcoma 38% of tumors, predominant in young adults and adolescents, contain masses of osteoid, located in the metaphyses of long bones 50% occur in the knees
  42. Myelogenic tumors
    most fatal, Giant cell tumor causes extensive bone resorption, locatd in the epiphyses of the femur, tibia, radius or humerus. Myeloma bone tumor in adults

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