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What is The Camera Obscura? When was it popular?
- First image making device, no lens, just a small hole to form image (not permanent).
- 16th-19th century
Which Frenchman discovered how to make an image permanent and when did he do so?
What was unique about the first permanent photograph?
What was it made on?
- Shadows on both sides- indicates sun movement (very long exposure).
- A Pewter Plate.
Who made the first photograph of a human and when was this done? Why was the photograph possible?
- Daguerre in 1839.
- Because the man in the picture was having his shoes polished.
The earliest photos were _ positive images on _. There was no way to make _ of a photograph.
unique, metal plates, copies
An Englishman named _ created _ using paper.
Why was this such a big deal?
- Fox-Talbot, negatives
- Negatives enabled copies of the photographs to be made.
The next step was the use of _ coated with light-sensitive _.
Glass plates, emulsion
Early cameras were _ and _; most photographs of people had to be made in the _.
big, heavy, studio
The invention of _ and the _ camera changed the need for photographs to be taken in the studio.
What were two unique properties of early photographs?
- 1) they were often collages of images used to create the best image
- 2) heads were clamped so the subject stays still
Who invented the first hand-held camera, when was it invented and how much did it cost?
- Eastman, a bankteller, in 1888
- Cost: $25
What was Kodak's motto for the first handheld camera and why?
- "You push the button, we do the rest."
- When you used all of the film (100 pics), you sent camera back to Kodak, they would develop pics and send them back, along with the camera and new roll of film
What are 3 important changes of Kodak's hand-held camera?
- 1. Portability, photography no longer limited to the studio
- 2. Affordability, now everyone can take pictures
- 3. We now have visual records of everyday life.
When was the 35mm camera invented, what did it use the same 35mm film from, what three areas did the 35mm camera have the most use?
- Film industry
- Publishing, candid photography, spy cameras
Positive changes that came with digital cameras & problems the digital camera created
- Everyone has a camera, no need for prints
- Without prints, future generations will not be bale to see our photographic records, and we have become impatient because photos can be transmitted instantly
Center of Interest/Subject/Focal Point
- The photo has a dominant element (subject) which immediately draws our attention.
- Seen as the reason the photograph was taken.
- Without a subject, the photo "lacks punch"
How to take a sharp, in focus photo:
- Know the focusing area of your camera, place it on the subject (eyes-humans), press shutter button halfway to lock, recompose, then click
- Don't get too close to subjects because cameras have a minimum focusing distance. Use the close-up function when necessary (BUT NOT DIGITAL ZOOM)
Sharp, steady camera - no blur from camera movement:
Feet shoulder width apart, brace yourself when necessary, use the camera strap, hold elbows to sides, only move index finger when snapping the photo
Sharp, on blue from unintended subject movement:
- Have subject stay still, take special care in low-light situations.
- When viewing, zoom into the image to check for sharpness (eyes-human)
- Best to check sharpness on a computer screen
Fill the frame:
Use vertical and horizontal camera positions, get close, use zoom if necessary, but never digital zoom
How to ensure the subject is well lit
Use flash when the subject is dark against a bright background, make sure the subject isn't too bright against a dark background, and learn to recognize when subjects are not in the same light as their backgrounds.
How the camera makes images:
When you take a picture, there are calculations based on light and other factors that determine aperture and shutter speed
Size of the opening that allows light to focus on the camera's light-sensitive chip (also focuses)
Define shutter speed
Time that light is allowed to hit the light-sensitive chip
Define shutter lag
From the time you press shoot to the time the picture actually takes
Define ISO setting
How sensitive the chip is to light, more sensitive leads to less necessary exposure
What are two components of exposure?
Aperature and shutter speed
Simplicity: reduce distractions from the subject
- Avoid complicated/distracting backgrounds
- Avoid unrelated subjects
Rule of Thirds: Subject placement
Divide your subject with an imaginary tic-tac-toe board and place your subject on one of the intersections. Place horizons high or low, not in the middle. Leave more room in front of a moving subject
Lines: Learn to recognize and use them
Diagonal lines (dynamic), eye-leading lines (real/implied), repetitive lines, geometric shapes, s-curves
Balance: A sense of visual equilibrium
- Symmetrical balance=formal
- Asymmetrical balance=informal
- Note the use of backlight
Framing: use foreground objects
To enclose or emphasize a subject, creates a sense of depth
Avoid mergers: train yourself to be aware of the background
- Unintended humor can occur
- Distracting objects are too close to each other
- Border mergers