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study of how we form impressions of and make inferences about other people.
conclusion that a person is behaving in a certain way because of something
about the person, such as attitude, character, or personality.
conclusion that a person is behaving a certain way because of something about
the situation they are in. The
assumption that most people would respond the same way in that situation
The tendency to overestimate peoples behavior to
internal factors and underestimate the role of situational factors.
- attribution error:
and Harris (1967):
- Students were told to write an essay either
- for against Castro
The seeming importance of information that is
the visual focus of people's attention.
step process of attribution: the behavior
the behavior --> step 1 --> step 2 -->
: A theory that states in order to find out
what caused a person's behavior we need to note the pattern between the
presence or absence or possible causal factors
situation is centered around the person
situation is centered around the outside
: Does the person and other people behave in
the same way
- No = consensus is low
- yes = consensus is high
the person behave the same way around others
- No = distinctiveness is high
- Yes = distinctiveness is low
the person behave the same way across time and situations
- No = consistency is low
- Yes = consistency is high
consensus and distinctiveness and high consistency
on all three categories
Model advantages and disadvantages
- This method appears to be accurate
- This method is difficult to use
seeking or remembering information that confirms
and Swann (1978
- College students were asked to interview other college students were describe as being
- attractive or unattractive
A type of schema people use to group various
kinds of personality traits together; for example, many people believe that
someone who is kind is generous as well.
Implicit personality theories
- : IV is the students response to the substitute
- professor, DV is the warm or cold note, Findings are that people generally
- rated the professor close to the warm or cold note they received.
Angry, happy, disgusted, surprised, sad, and afraid
way people communicate without words.
Includes facial expressions, tone of voice gestures, body position and
movement, the use of touch, and gaze
The self concept or self schema. The information about myself, the library
Self reflexive ability to think about who you
are, or the conscience. The ability to
change or regulate behavior. A process,
: the narrow part of you that is right now, the
self in context
- Found that whoever is the minority tend to
- identify themselves by the characteristics that make them the minority (race,
- gender, etc...)
Self-schemas (Markus 1977)
- women who were independent, dependent and Aschematic.
Those parts of yourself that are central and
import to you (funny, organized, punctual, etc...)
All things that you do not care or think
what is Influence
on information processing
- We tend
- to judge others on what is important or schematic to us.
When you relate words to yourself you tend to
remember them better.
A way of defining oneself in terms of one's
own internal thoughts, feelings, and action and not in terms of the thought,
feelings, and actions of other people
: a way of defining oneself in terms of one's
relationships to other people, recognizing that one's behavior is often
determined by the thought, feelings, and actions of others
Gabriel & Gardner (1999) Found that:
women tend to focus relational interdependence, meaning that they focus more on their close relationships, such as how they feelabout their spouse or their child. Men have more collective interdependence, meaning that they focus on their memberships in large groups, such as the fact that they are Americans or that they belong to a fraternity.
Aron et al
There are schemas of our self, the close other, and schemas that overlap.
- when asked questions that fit their schema or overlap the answers were fast
- and accurate. When asked about
- the close other the answers were slower and less accurate
- sometimes there was relationship overlap where schemas got confused between self
- and close other.
Baldwin et al: We also connect our schemas to people
we have never met.
catholic school girls were asked to a read a sexual story. Half were then put into a room wherethey saw subliminal pictures of the pope while the others were put intoa room where random pictures were showngirlswho were primed with pictures of the pope reported feeling worse aboutthemselves than those who were not primed
in reflected glory (BIRG-ing)
Cialdini et al. (1976): Found that collegestudents wore their teams colors/jerseys more frequently after awin. When asked to reflect on thegame, fans responded with "we did great" "weplayed great." When askedafter a loss they responded with "they did not playwell" "they had a rough game."Thisis an example of connecting ourselves to a larger collective.
what is it when people tend to think of themselves in a little better light than what is the
truth? What are the benefits?
- there are benefits to this was of thinking such as better mental health, self
- fulfilling prophecy, and relationship persistence
Consequences of self illusions
Self fulfilling prophecy can work against you if you view yourself in a negative light. If you think you will do poorly on something chances are you will.
attention from an area you have recently failed to an area you are strong
credit for success and externalizing failure
: Putting obstacles in the way of your own
et al. (1987): Confirming self-concept,
be it positive or negative
Focused on people who had a negative self-concept when asked to give a speech to confederates. Affective reaction: People felt good for a bit Cognitive reaction: Person did not believe, suspicious of feedback after they thought about it for a bit.This study argues that people would rather have others view them in the same light they view themselves than feel good.
The way we think we are supposed to be dictated by society. Actual-ought discrepancy: When we fall short we feel bad but have a lot of energy about it.
the way we actually want to be. Actual-ideal discrepancy: When we fall short we feel bad and have low energy and feel sad.
: The idea that our will power gets
drained when we use it.
ability to change our behavior, control impulses, self regulation, decision
making, resist temptations, etc...
for successfully changing our behavior
- best way is to avoid putting yourself in tempting situations to begin
- is like a muscle and will get stronger if we exercise it.
- of willpower will help it to last longer
- daily tasks different to get used to changing your behavior (brush
- teeth and open doors with non-dominant hand)
take action and initiative
believe arousal is caused by one event when in reality it is caused by a
& Aron (1974) bridge test
found that men who met the female on the fear arousing bridge were morelikely to be attracted to the female and attempt to contact her for adate. thiswas attributed to misattribution of arousal. Men thought they were aroused by the woman when in fact they were aroused by the fear arousing bridge.
ourselves to people who are better than we are with regard to a particular
trait or ability
ourselves to people who are worse than we are with regard to a particular trait
: The theory that when our attributes and
feelings are uncertain or ambiguous, we infer these states by observing
our behavior and the situation in which it occurs
: The desire to engage in an activity because
we enjoy it or find it interesting, not because of external rewards or
: The desire to engage in an activity because
of external rewards or pressures, not because we enjoy the task or find it
process whereby people adopt another person's attitudes
process whereby people flatter, praise, and generally try to make themselves
likable to another person, often of higher status
evaluations of their own self-worth -- that is, the extent to which they
view themselves as good, competent, and decent.
theory that holds that self-esteem serves as a buffer, protecting people from
terrifying thoughts about their own morality
Three or more people who interact and are
interdependent in the sense that their needs and goals cause them to influence
Shared expectations in a group about how particular people to
supposed to behave
of a group that bind members together and promote liking between members
: less accountability, obedience to the
behavior aimed at causing physical harm or psychological pain to another
stemming from feelings of anger and aimed at inflicting pain or injury
as a means to some goal other than causing pain (football)
aggression (Baumeister, Smart & Boden perspective)
- that self-esteem has little to do with aggressive behavior.
- Instead they found that violence the result of
- threatened egotism. Highly favorable
- views of the self are disputed by others or circumstances. Inflated, unstable, or tentative beliefs of
- self superiority may b e most prone to encountering threats and hence to
- causing violence.
theory that frustration -- the perception that you are being prevented from
attaining a goal -- increases the probability of an aggressive response.
- Aggression Hypothesis
Southern Culture of Honor, under what conditions is aggression condoned?
When defending your honor in the case of insults. Lab studies results (under what conditions did Southerners display more aggressive behavior, signs of aggressive arousal than Northerners?) Southern men were more like to become aggressive when they were bumped and insulted in the lab study. They were also unlikely to yield when they came face to face with someone walking down a hallway.
Alcohol decreases inhibitions and increases aggressive behavior. It also disrupts the part of the brainthat controls planning and controlling behavior
is triangulation? Why do we need
it? Baseball study, aggression and
honking, lab studies – basic findings?
triangulation is when heat leads to discomfort which leads to aggression. In baseball pitchers were more likely to hit the batter with the ball on hot days.
aggression: Social Learning Theory
(Bandura, Ross, & Ross, 1961, 1963)
children who were exposed to violent media were more likely to be aggressive toward other children.
& aggression: Results of
meta-analyses by Maccoby & Jacklin (1974) and Eagly & Steffen
Maccoby & Jacklin found that men tend to me more aggressive than women.Eaglyand Steffen found the same results but the difference was not aslarge. It also depended on which type of aggression.
: Causing physical harm, blatant verbal
at harming social relationships and self-esteem.
effects (Heusman et al. 2003) longitudinal study
- that the more television resulted in both boys and girls being more aggressive
- after following them for 15 years. Found
- that aggression in girls was both physical and indirect.
of violent media:
numbing: Repeated exposure makes us numb to violence and aggression
imitation: People will copy what they see andhear from media
to be non-aggressive (Donnerstein & Donnerstein, 1976):
they found that children will imitate non-aggressive behavior and pro-social behavior too.
Learning versus. Catharsis: what
is catharsis? Is there any
evidence that it works to reduce aggression?
- A Freudian notion that blowing off steam -- by performing a verbally or
- physically aggressive act, watching others engage in aggressive
- behavior, or engaging in fantasy aggression -- relieves built-up
- aggressive energies and hence reduces the likelihood of further
- aggressive behavior.
- There is no evidence to support that catharsis
social learning: The more you view violent models the more likely you are to act on your violent impulses. People learn by watching and imitating
Aggressive stimulus, the mere presence of a weapon (especially a gun) can
prime aggressive thoughts, which in turn can heighten probability of aggressive reactions under certain circumstances (e.g., Berkowitz & LePage, 1967).
Do threats of punishment work in kids?
the threat of harsh punishment does not work on kids. However, threats of mild punishmentleads the child to justify their restraint and as a result can make thebehavior less appealing
use of punishment to reduce
aggression work with kids? why or why not?
Usually the use of punishment does not work to reduce aggression because it end up teaching the kids to use aggression when they are stressed out themselves. Yelling at a child who is having a tantrum might also reinforce the behavior because it is giving them the attention that they are looking for.
use of punishment to reduce
aggression work with violent adults? Why
or why not?
- for adults works only if it is both prompt and certain. In the real world it is neither of
- these. The criminal justice system works
- slow and only has a chance of working if the criminal is caught, charged,
- tried, convicted, and finally sentenced.
- This is neither prompt nor certain.