AP Biology Chapter 1:Introduction

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brenntif
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288057
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AP Biology Chapter 1:Introduction
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2014-11-03 22:14:53
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notes for ch. 1: Introdcution
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  1. evolution:
    the process of change that has transformed life on Earth
  2. Biology:
    scientific study of life
  3. emergent properties:
    • result from the arrangement and interaction of parts within a system
    •    -characterize non-biological entities as well
  4. Reductionism:
    the reduction of complex systems to simpler components that are more manageable to study
  5. System:
    combination of components that function together
  6. systems biology:
    constructs models for the dynamic behavior of whole biological systems
  7. every organism interacts with its environment , including nonliving factors and other organisms
  8. both organisms and their environments are affected by the interactions between them
  9. (Global) Climate Change:
    global warming is a major aspect
  10. -a fundamental characteristic of living organisms is their use of energy to carry out life's activities
    -work, including moving, growing, and reproducing requires a source of energy
    -living organisms transform energy from one form to another
    -energy flows through an ecosystem, usually entering as light and exiting as heat
  11. structure and function of living organisms are closely related
    ex: a leaf is thin and flat, maximizing the capture of light by chloroplasts
  12. all cells are:
    • 1. enclosed by a membrane
    • 2. use DNA as their genetic information
  13. eukaryotic cell:
    has membrane-enclosed organelles, the largest of which is usually the nucleus
  14. prokaryotic cell:
    simpler and usually smaller than eukaryotic cells, and doesn't contain a nucleus or other membrane-enclosed organelles
  15. DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid):
    substances of genes
  16. chromosomes contain most of a cell's genetic material
  17. genes:
    the units of inheritance that transmit information from parents to offspring
  18. the ability of cells to divide is the basis of all reproduction, growth, and repair of multicellular organisms
  19. each chromosome has one long DNA molecule with hundreds or thousands of genes
      -each DNA molecule is made up of 2 long chains arranged in a double helix
  20. -genes encode information for building proteins
    -genes control protein production indirectly
  21. -DNA is inherited by offspring from their parents
    -DNA controls the development and maintenance of organisms
  22. 4 kinds of chemical building blocks called nucleotides
    A, G, C, T
  23. DNA is transcribed into RNA then translated into a protein
  24. Gene expression:
    the process of converting information from gene to cellular product
  25. Genome:
    an organism's entire set of genetic instructions
  26. Genomics:
    the study of sets of genes within & between species
  27. the genomic approach depends on:
    • 1. "High-throughout" technology, which yields enormous amounts of data
    • 2. Bioinformatics
    • 3. interdisciplinary research teams
  28. Bioinformatics:
    the use of computational tools to process a large volume of data
  29. feedback mechanisms allow biological processes to self-regulate
  30. Negative Feedback:
    as more of a product accumulates, the process that creates it slows and less of the product is produced
  31. Positive Feedback:
    as more of a product accumulates, the process that creates it speeds up and more of the product is produced
  32. -organisms are modified descendants of common ancestors
    -similar traits among organisms are explained by descent from common ancestors
  33. evolution explains patterns of unity and diversity in living organisms
  34. differences among organisms are explained by the accumulation of heritable changes
  35. Taxonomy:
    the branch of biology that names & classifies species into groups of increasing breadth
  36. broadest to narrowest units of classification:
    • 1. Domain
    • 2. Kingdom
    • 3. Phylum
    • 4. Class
    • 5. Order
    • 6. Family
    • 7. Genus
    • 8. Species
  37. organisms are divided into 3 domains:
    • 1. Bacteria
    • 2. Archaea
    • 3. Eukarya
  38. Domain(s) that consist of prokaryotes
    Bacteria & Archaea
  39. Domain(s) that consist of eukaryotes
    Eukarya
  40. Kingdoms included under Domain Eukarya
    • 1. plants
    • 2. fungi
    • 3. animals
    • 4. Protist
  41. a striking unity underlines the diversity of life; for ex:
    • 1. DNA is the universal genetic language common to all organisms
    • 2. unity is evident in many features of cell stucture
  42. Charles Darwin published On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection in 1859
  43. Darwin's 2 main points in evolution
    • 1. species showed evidence of "descent with modification" from common ancestors
    • 2. natural selection is the mechanism behind "descent with modification"
  44. Darwin's theory explained the duality of unity and diversity
  45. Darwin observed:
    • 1. individuals in a population vary in their traits, many of which are heritable
    • 2. more offspring are produced than survive, and competition is inevitable
    • 3. species generally suit their environment
  46. Darwin inferred that:
    • 1. individuals that are best suited to their environment are more likely to survive and reproduce
    • 2. over time, more individuals in a population will have the advantageous traits
  47. Natural Selection:
    results in the adaptation of organisms to their environment
  48. Science:
    derived from Latin & means "to know"
  49. Inquiry:
    the search for information & explanation
  50. The scientific process includes:
    • *making observations
    • *forming logical hypothesises
    • *testing hypothesises
  51. Data:
    recorded observations or items of information
  52. Qualitative Data:
    description rather than measurments
  53. Quantitative data:
    recorded measurements; sometimes organized into tables and graphs
  54. Inductive Reasoning:
    • draws conclusions through the logical process of induction
    • -repeating specific observations can lead to important generalizations
  55. 1. Hypothesis:
    2. Hypothesises must be:
    • 1. a tentative answer to a well-formed question
    • 2. testable & falisifiable
  56. Deductive Reasoning:
    uses general premises to make specific predictions
  57. Scientific Method:
    an idealized process of inquiry
  58. Controlled Experiment:
    • compares an experimental group with a control group
    • -control groups are used to cancel the effects of unwanted variables
  59. in the context of science, a theory is:
    • 1. broader in scope than a hypothesis
    • 2. general, & can lead to new testable hypotheses
    • 3. supported by a large body of evidence in comparison to a hypothesis
  60. goal of science:
    understand natural phenomena
  61. goal of technology:
    apply scientific knowledge for some specific purpose

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