Ch. 9 Behaviorism: Antecedent Influences
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What was the only valid knowledge according to Auguste Comte?
knowledge that is social in nature (available to all) and objectively observable (measurable)
What were Descartes contribution for the initial steps toward and objective science?
mechanistic explanations for the operations of the human body
What was Watson's statement for the relationship between animal psychology and behaviorism?
Behaviorism is a direct outgrowth of studies in animal behavior during the first decade of the twentieth century
What was the most important antecedent to Behaviorism?
Who developed the theory of animal behavior and what was the theory based on?
Jacques Loeb and tropism
What did Jacques believe about animal behavior?
the reaction to stimulus is direct and automatic requiring no explanation from the alleged consciousness
What was Thorndike's approach to learning and what is it based on?
connectionism based on connections between situations and responses (learning is connecting)
What are the stimulus response units?
elements of behavior (not of consciousness) and are the building blocks from which more complex behaviors are compounded
What was Thorndike's approach to the study of learning?
What did the trial and accidental success came to be known as?
trial and error learning
How was trial and error learning conducted?
quantitative measures were used to record the decreasing number of wrong behaviors, the behaviors that did not lead to escape
What is involved in the law of effect?
- favorable consequences lead to repeat of action, "stamping in"
- unfavorable consequences lead to a less likely recurrence of action, "stamping out"
What is the law of exercise?
the more an act or response is used in a given situation, the more strongly the act becomes associated with that situation
What proved to be more effective in action response research?
reward consequences of response (producing satisfaction) rather than simple repetition of response
What did Thorndike's research on law of effect show?
rewarding a response strengthened the response but punishing a response did not produce a comparable negative response
What did Ivan Pavlov originally intend to pursue and what changed his mind?
priesthood but reading works by Darwin changed his mind
What did Pavlov establish?
fundamental laws of classical learning
What is necessary for learning?
What are the 5 learning phenomenons?
- extinction of responses
- spontaneous recovery
- higher-order conditions
What idea of Descartes did Pavlov credit as his starting point?
What did Pavlov's work demonstrate?
higher mental processes could be studied and described in physiological terms without any mention of consciousness
What did Bekhterev study and what did he call it?
muscular activity response (motor conditioning response) which he called associated reflexes
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