Med Term Final

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  1. means surgical removal
    -ectomy
  2. means the surgical creation of an artificial opening to the body surface
    -ostomy
  3. means cutting or a surgical incision
    -otomy
  4. is the surgical removal of the appendix
    appendectomy
  5. is the surgical creation of an artificial excretory opening between the colon and the body surface
    colostomy
  6. is a surgical incision into the colon
    colotomy
  7. describes any abnormal condition or disease caused by a fungus
    Mycosis
  8. describes any pathologic change or disease in the spinal cord
    myelopathy
  9. describes any pathologic change or disease of muscle tissue
    myopathy
  10. is an examination technique in which the examiner’s hands are used to feel the texture, size, consistency, and location of certain body parts.
    Palpation
  11. is a pounding or racing heart.
    Palpitation
  12. is the defective development, or the congenital absence, of an organ or tissue
    Aplasia
  13. is a change in the structure of cells and in their orientation to each other.This abnormal cell development is characteristic of tumor formation in cancers.
    Anaplasia
  14. is the abnormal development or growth of cells, tissues, or organs
    Dysplasia
  15. is a general increase in the bulk of a body part or organ that is due to an increase in the size, but not in the number, of cells in the tissues. This enlargement is not due to tumor formation.
    Hypertrophy
  16. produces symptoms for which no physiological or anatomical cause can be identified. For example, a panic attack
    functional disorder
  17. is an unfavorable response due to prescribed medical treatment. For example, severe burns resulting from radiation therapy are iatrogenic.
    iatrogenic illness
  18. is an illness without known cause
    idiopathic disorder
  19. is a disease acquired in a hospital or clinical setting. For example, MRSA infections are often spread in hospitals
    nosocomial infection
  20. also known as a slipped or ruptured disk, is the breaking apart of an intervertebral disk that results in pressure on spinal nerve roots
    herniated disk
  21. also known as low back pain, is pain of the lumbar region of the spine
    Lumbago
  22. is an abnormal increase in the forward curvature of the lumbar spine.This condition is also known as swayback
    Lordosis
  23. also known as adult rickets, is abnormal softening of bones in adults.This condition is usually caused by a deficiency of vitamin D, calcium, and/or phosphate.
    Osteomalacia
  24. which is also known as clubfoot, describes any congenital deformity of the foot involving the talus (ankle bones).

    a congenital deformity in which the foot is twisted out of shape or position; it may be in dorsiflexion
    talipes
  25. also known as a vertebral crush fracture, occurs when the bone is pressed together (compressed) on itself. These fractures are sometimes caused by the spontaneous collapse of weakened vertebrae or can be due to an injury. This results in pain, loss of height, and development of the spinal curvature known as dowager’s hump.
    compression fracture
  26. which is named for the Irish surgeon Abraham Colles, is also known as a fractured wrist. This fracture occurs at the lower end of the radius when a person tries to stop a fall by landing on his or her hands. The impact of this fall causes the bone weakened by osteoporosis to break
    Colles’ fracture
  27. is the lack of muscle coordination during voluntary movement. These movements, which are often shaky and unsteady, are most frequently caused by abnormal activity in the cerebellum
    Ataxia
  28. is a sudden, involuntary contraction of one or more muscles. Also known as a charley horse, especially when occurring in the leg.
    spasm
  29. also known as wryneck, is a stiff neck due to spasmodic contraction of the neck muscles that pull the head toward the affected side
    Spasmodic torticollis
  30. also known as hyperactivity, is abnormally increased muscle function or activity
    Hyperkinesia
  31. abnormally diminished motor function or activity
    Hypokinesia
  32. also known as hiccups, is myoclonus of the diaphragm that causes the characteristic hiccup sound with each spasm.
    Singultus
  33. symptoms occur when the tendons that pass through the carpal tunnel are chronically overused and become inflamed and swollen. The carpal tunnel is a narrow, bony passage under the carpal ligament that is located one-fourth of an inch below the inner surface of the wrist. The median nerve and the tendons that bend the fingers pass through this tunnel
    Carpal tunnel syndrome
  34. is an injury to a joint, such as an ankle, knee, or wrist, which usually occurs when a ligament is wrenched or torn
    sprain
  35. is an injury to the body of the muscle or to the attachment of a tendon
    strain
  36. is a painful condition caused by the tibialis anterior muscle tearing away from the tibia (shin bone).
    shin splint
  37. is a surgical incision through the fascia to relieve tension or pressure.Without this procedure, which is commonly used to treat compartment syndrome, the pressure causes a loss of circulation that damages the affected tissues.
    fasciotomy
  38. is the surgical repair of a fascia
    Fascioplasty
  39. is a localized weak spot or balloon-like enlargement of the wall of an artery.
    aneurysm
  40. also known as hardening of the arteries, is any of a group of diseases characterized by thickening and the loss of elasticity of arterial walls
    Arteriosclerosis
  41. is a blood clot attached to the interior wall of an artery or vein
    thrombus
  42. is the sudden blockage of a blood vessel by an embolus
    embolism
  43. is a group of bone marrow disorders that are characterized by the insufficient production of one or more types of blood cells due to dysfunction of the bone marrow.
    Myelodysplastic syndrome
  44. is a type of cancer characterized by a progressive increase in the number of abnormal leukocytes (white blood cells) found in bloodforming tissues, other organs, and in the circulating blood
    Leukemia
  45. is a lower-than-normal number of erythrocytes (red blood cells) in the blood
    Anemia
  46. is a blood disorder characterized by anemia in which the red blood cells are larger than normal
    Megaloblastic anemia
  47. also known as postural hypotension, is low blood pressure that occurs upon standing up. Orthostatic means relating to an upright or standing position.
    Orthostatic hypotension
  48. is a small bacterium that lives in lice, fleas, ticks, and mites
    rickettsia
  49. are long, slender spiral-shaped bacteria that have flexible walls and are capable of movement.
    Spirochetes
  50. is a simple parasitic organism. Are harmless to humans; others are pathogenic
    fungus
  51. is also known as a yeast infection
    candidiasis
  52. is a plant or animal that lives on or within another living organism at the expense of that organism.
    parasite
  53. is difficulty in speaking, which may include any impairment in vocal quality, including hoarseness, weakness, or the cracking of a boy’s voice during puberty
    Dysphonia
  54. an inflammation of the larynx.This term is also commonly used to describe voice loss that is caused by this inflammation.
    Laryngitis
  55. also known as pleuritis, is an inflammation of the pleura, the membranes that cover the lungs and line the pleural cavity. Pleurisy, which causes pleurodynia, may result from trauma, tuberculosis, connective tissue disease, or an infection
    Pleurisy
  56. is the accumulation of air in the pleural space resulting in a pressure imbalance that causes the lung to fully or partially collapse. This can have an external cause, such as a stab wound through the chest wall, or can occur when there is a lung-disease-related rupture in the pleura that allows air to leak into the pleural space
    pneumothorax
  57. refers to a collection of pus in a body cavity.
    Empyema
  58. is the loss of consciousness that occurs when the body cannot get the oxygen it needs to function.
    Asphyxia
  59. is a state of asphyxia or suffocation.
    Asphyxiation
  60. is a bluish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes caused by a lack of adequate oxygen in the blood
    Cyanosis
  61. is the abnormal buildup of carbon dioxide in the blood
    Hypercapnia
  62. is the condition of having low oxygen levels in the blood, usually due to respiratory disorders or heart conditions
    Hypoxemia
  63. is the condition of having deficient oxygen levels in the body’s tissues and organs; however, it is less severe than anoxia.This condition can be caused a variety of factors, including head trauma, carbon monoxide poisoning, suffocation, and high altitudes.
    Hypoxia
  64. is the rumbling noise caused by the movement of gas in the intestine.
    Borborygmus
  65. is difficulty in swallowing
    Dysphagia
  66. also known as heartburn, is the burning sensation caused by the return of acidic stomach contents into the esophagus
    Pyrosis
  67. are enlarged and swollen veins at the lower end of the esophagus
    Esophageal varices
  68. is the loss of appetite for food, especially when caused by disease.
    Anorexia
  69. is an eating disorder characterized by frequent episodes of binge eating followed by compensatory behaviors such as self-induced vomiting or the misuse of laxatives, diuretics, or other medications.
    Bulimia nervosa
  70. is an abnormal craving or appetite for nonfood substances, such as dirt, paint, or clay, that lasts for at least one month
    Pica
  71. is an inflammation of the liver usually caused by a viral infection
    Hepatitis
  72. is a yellow discoloration of the skin, mucous membranes, and the eyes. This condition is caused by greater-than-normal amounts of bilirubin in the blood.
    Jaundice
  73. is a chronic degenerative disease of the liver characterized by scarring
    Cirrhosis
  74. is an abnormal accumulation of serous fluid in the peritoneal cavity. This condition is usually the result of severe liver disease. As used here, the term serous means a substance having a watery consistency.
    Ascites
  75. is inflammation of the gallbladder, usually associated with gallstones blocking the flow of bile
    Cholecystitis
  76. also known as a cholelith, is a hard deposit formed in the gallbladder and bile ducts due to the concretion of bile components
    gallstone
  77. and cystodynia both mean pain in the bladder
    Cystalgia
  78. inflammation of the trigone of the bladder, which often accompanies urethritis
    trigonitis
  79. is an abnormal opening between the bladder and vagina that allows constant involuntary flow of urine from the bladder into the vagina
    vesicovaginal fistula
  80. is the absence of urine formation by the kidneys.This condition is often caused by a failure in kidney function, or a urinary tract obstruction
    Anuria
  81. is difficult, or painful urination.This condition is frequently associated with urinary tract infections.
    Dysuria
  82. is urinary incontinence during sleep. It is also known as bed-wetting.
    Nocturnal enuresis
  83. means excessive urination and is a common symptom of diabetes
    Polyuria
  84. is the surgical freeing of a kidney from adhesions
    Nephrolysis
  85. is a band of fibrous tissue that holds structures together abnormally. Adhesions can form in muscles or in internal organs, as the result of an injury or surgery. The term frozen shoulder refers to adhesions forming in the capsule of connective tissue in the shoulder, tightening around the shoulder joint.
    adhesion
  86. commonly known as a kidney transplant, is the grafting of a donor kidney, from either a living or nonliving donor, into the body to replace the recipient’s failed kidneys. Kidney donors need to be genetically similar to the recipient, although a tissue match increases the success rate. A single transplanted kidney is capable of adequately performing all kidney functions and frees the patient from the need for dialysis
    Renal transplantation
  87. is the surgical removal of a nephrolith through a small incision in the back
    percutaneous nephrolithotomy
  88. is the thick, tough, outermost membrane of the meninges
    dura mater
  89. which resembles a spiderweb, is the second layer of the meninges and is located between the dura mater and the pia mater.
    arachnoid membrane
  90. which is the third layer of the meninges, is located nearest to the brain and spinal cord. It consists of delicate connective tissue that contains a rich supply of blood vessels
    pia mater
  91. which may be preceded by a warning aura, is characterized by throbbing pain on one side of the head. Migraine headaches primarily affect women and are sometimes accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light or sound.
    migraine headache
  92. also referred to as infectious meningitis, is an inflammation of the meninges of the brain and spinal cord
    Meningitis
  93. is a slowly progressive decline in mental abilities, including memory, thinking, and judgment, that is often accompanied by personality changes.
    Dementia
  94. is a potentially serious or deadly disorder in children that is characterized by vomiting and confusion. This syndrome sometimes follows a viral illness in which the child was treated with aspirin.
    Reye’s syndrome (RIZE)
  95. also known as lockjaw, is an acute and potentially fatal infection of the central nervous system caused by a toxin produced by the tetanus bacteria
    Tetanus
  96. is persistent, severe burning pain that usually follows an injury to a sensory nerve
    Causalgia
  97. is a condition of abnormal and excessive sensitivity to touch, pain, or other sensory stimuli
    Hyperesthesia
  98. refers to a burning or prickling sensation that is usually felt in the hands, arms, legs, or feet, but can also occur in other parts of the body
    Paresthesia
  99. is the surgical repair of a nerve or nerves
    Neuroplasty
  100. is surgically suturing together the ends of a severed nerve
    Neurorrhaphy
  101. is the surgical division or dissection (cutting) of a nerve
    Neurotomy
  102. is marked by a lack of responsiveness, stupor, and a tendency to remain in a fixed posture
    Catatonic behavior
  103. is a false personal belief that is maintained despite obvious proof or evidence to the contrary. The belief is not one ordinarily accepted by other members of the individual’s culture or religious faith.
    delusion
  104. is a sensory perception (i.e., sight, touch, sound, smell, or taste) experienced in the absence of external stimulation.
    hallucination
  105. is the process whereby the eyes make adjustments for seeing objects at various distances. These adjustments include contraction (narrowing) and dilation (widening) of the pupil, movement of the eyes, and changes in the shape of the lens.
    Accommodation
  106. is the simultaneous inward movement of the eyes toward each other. This occurs in an effort to maintain single binocular vision as an object comes nearer.
    Convergence
  107. is the ability of the lens to bend light rays so they focus on the retina.
    Refraction
  108. is the drooping of the upper eyelid that is usually due to paralysis
    blepharoptosis
  109. is a condition in which the pupils are unequal in size
    Anisocoria
  110. is the loss of transparency of the lens that causes a progressive loss of visual clarity
    cataract
  111. is a gradually progressive condition in which the macula at the center of the retina is damaged, resulting in the loss of central vision, but not in total blindness
    Macular degeneration
  112. is any error of refraction in which images do not focus properly on the retina
    Ametropia
  113. is a condition in which the eye does not focus properly because of uneven curvatures of the cornea.
    Astigmatism
  114. also known as farsightedness, is a defect in which light rays focus beyond the retina
    Hyperopia
  115. also known as nearsightedness, is a defect in which light rays focus in front of the retina
    Myopia
  116. is a pressure-related ear condition
    Barotrauma
  117. is a contagious inflammation that causes painful blisters on the eardrum
    Infectious myringitis
  118. is an inflammation of the middle ear
    Otitis media
  119. is a sense of whirling, dizziness, and loss of balance that are often combined with nausea and vomiting.
    Vertigo
  120. is a condition of a ringing, buzzing, or roaring sound in one or both ears. It is often associated with hearing loss and is more likely to occur when there has been prolonged exposure to loud noises
    Tinnitus
  121. is the complete or partial loss of the ability to hear. It can range from the inability to hear sounds of a certain pitch or intensity, to a complete loss of hearing.
    Deafness
  122. is a gradual loss of sensorineural hearing that occurs as the body ages
    Presbycusis
  123. also known as baldness, is the partial or complete loss of hair, most commonly on the scalp
    Alopecia
  124. is an autoimmune disorder that attacks the hair follicles, causing welldefined bald areas on the scalp or elsewhere on the body
    Alopecia areata
  125. is a pathologic change of the tissues due to disease or injury. Skin lesions are described by their appearance, location, color, and size as measured in centimeters (cm).
    lesion
  126. also known as scab, is a collection of dried serum and cellular debris
    crust
  127. is a discolored flat spot that is less than 1 cm in diameter. examples:Freckles, or flat moles,
    macule
  128. also known as a welt, is a small bump that itches. Wheals can appear as urticaria, or hives (which are discussed in a later section) as a symptom of an allergic reaction
    wheal
  129. is a flat vascular birthmark made up of dilated blood capillaries, creating a large, reddish-purple discoloration on the face or neck. This type of birthmark will not resolve without treatment.
    port-wine stain
  130. is a soft, raised, pink or red vascular birthmark.is a benign tissue mass made up of newly formed small blood vessels that in birthmarks are visible through the skin
    strawberry hemangioma
  131. is a localized allergic response caused by contact with an irritant, such as diaper rash. It can also be caused by exposure to an allergen, such as poison ivy, or an allergic reaction to latex gloves
    Contact dermatitis (CD)
  132. also known as atopic dermatitis, is a form of persistent or recurring dermatitis usually characterized by redness, itching, and dryness, with possible blistering, cracking, oozing, or bleeding. This chronic condition, most often seen in infants and children, appears to be the result of a malfunction of the body’s immune system.
    Eczema
  133. also known as itching, is associated with most forms of dermatitis
    Pruritus
  134. also known as painful fat syndrome, is a chronic abnormal condition that is characterized by the accumulation of fat and fluid in the tissues just under the skin of the hips and legs
    Lipedema
  135. is an autoimmune disorder characterized by a red, scaly rash on the face and upper trunk. In addition to the skin, this condition also attacks the connective tissue in other body systems, especially in the joints.
    lupus erythematosus
  136. is a common skin disorder characterized by flare-ups in which red papules covered with silvery scales occur on the elbows, knees, scalp, back, or buttocks
    Psoriasis
  137. also known as hives, are itchy wheals caused by an allergic reaction
    Urticaria
  138. is an infestation with lice
    Pediculosis
  139. is a skin infection caused by an infestation of itch mites
    Scabies
  140. is a thickening of part of the skin on the hands or feet caused by repeated rubbing.
    callus
  141. is an abnormally raised or thickened scar that expands beyond the boundaries of the original incision
    keloid
  142. is a benign, slow-growing fatty tumor located between the skin and the muscle layer
    lipoma
  143. is a general term used most commonly to describe a mushroom-like growth from the surface of a mucous membrane, such as a polyp in the nose.
    Polyp
  144. is a malignant tumor of the basal cell layer of the epidermis. This is the most common and least harmful type of skin cancer because it is slow growing and rarely spreads to other parts of the body.
    basal cell carcinoma
  145. originates as a malignant tumor of the scaly squamous cells of the epithelium; however, it can quickly spread to other body systems.
    Squamous cell carcinoma
  146. is the destruction of tissue by burning.
    Cauterization
  147. is the removal of dirt, foreign objects, damaged tissue, and cellular debris from a wound to prevent infection and to promote healing.
    Debridement
  148. is a form of abrasion involving the use of a revolving wire brush or sandpaper. It is used to remove acne and chickenpox scars as well as for facial skin rejuvenation
    Dermabrasion
  149. This is the same neurotoxin responsible for the form of food poisoning known as botulism.
    Botox
  150. is a form of soft-tissue augmentation used to soften facial lines or scars, or to make lips appear fuller
    Collagen replacement therapy
  151. also known as a skin graft, is the replacement of damaged skin with healthy tissue taken from a donor site on the patient’s body
    Dermatoplasty
  152. also known as suction-assisted lipectomy, is the surgical removal of fat beneath the skin with the aid of suction.
    Liposuction
  153. also known as a facelift, is the surgical removal of excess skin and fat from the face to eliminate wrinkles
    Rhytidectomy
  154. which is produced by the thyroid gland, is a hormone that works with the parathyroid hormone to decrease calcium levels in the blood and tissues by moving calcium into storage in the bones and teeth.
    Calcitonin
  155. which is secreted by the hypothalamus and stored and released in the pituitary gland, helps control blood pressure by reducing the amount of water that is excreted through the kidneys
    antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
  156. primary thyroid hormones regulate the rate of metabolism and affect the growth and rate of function of many other body systems
    thyroxine
  157. stimulates ovulation in the female. In the male, the luteinizing hormone stimulates the secretion of testosterone.
    luteinizing hormone (LH)
  158. also known as the somatotropic hormone, regulates the growth of bone, muscle, and other body tissues
    growth hormone (GH)
  159. is a rare chronic disease characterized by abnormal enlargement of the extremities (hands and feet) caused by the excessive secretion of growth hormone after puberty
    Acromegaly
  160. is abnormal growth of the entire body that is caused by excessive secretion of growth hormone before puberty
    Gigantism
  161. is a congenital form of hypothyroidism. If treatment is not started soon after birth, cretinism causes arrested physical and mental development.
    Cretinism
  162. also known as thyrotoxicosis, is the overproduction of thyroid which causes an imbalance of the metabolism.
    Hyperthyroidism
  163. is a disorder of unknown cause in which the immune system attacks the thyroid gland and stimulates it to make excessive amounts of thyroid hormone
    Graves’ disease (GRAYVZ)
  164. is an abnormally high concentration of glucose in the blood
    Hyperglycemia
  165. is excessive thirst
    Polydipsia
  166. is excessive hunger
    Polyphagia
  167. is excessive urination
    Polyuria
  168. is an abnormally low concentration of glucose (sugar) in the blood
    Hypoglycemia
  169. is an autoimmune insulin deficiency disorder caused by the destruction of pancreatic islet beta cells.
    Type 1 diabetes
  170. is an insulin resistance disorder. Insulin resistance means that insulin is being produced, but the body does not use it effectively.
    Type 2 diabetes
  171. occurs when the adrenal glands do not produce enough of the hormones cortisol or aldosterone. This condition is characterized by chronic, worsening fatigue and muscle weakness, loss of appetite, low blood pressure, and weight loss.
    Addison’s disease
  172. is inflammation of the adrenal glands
    Adrenalitis
  173. The congenital absence of one or more testes
    Anorchism
  174. also known as an undescended testicle, is a developmental defect in which one or both of the testicles fail to descend into their normal position in the scrotum
    Cryptorchidism
  175. is a painful erection that lasts 4 hours or more but is either not accompanied by sexual excitement or does not go away after sexual stimulation has ended.
    Priapism
  176. is the male sterilization procedure in which a small portion of the vas deferens is surgically removed
    vasectomy
  177. also known as a vasectomy reversal, is a procedure performed as an attempt to restore fertility to a vasectomized male
    vasovasostomy
  178. which is caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis, is the most commonly reported STD in the United States. It is highly contagious and requires early treatment with antibiotics.
    Chlamydia
  179. is caused by the herpes simplex virus type 1 or 2. Symptoms include itching or burning before the appearance of lesions (sores) on the genitals or rectum.
    Genital herpes
  180. which are caused by human papillomaviruses (HPV), are highly contagious. In the male, this virus infects the urethra. In the female, it infects the external genitalia, cervix, and vagina
    Genital warts
  181. is a highly contagious condition caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae. In women, this condition affects the cervix, uterus, and fallopian tubes. In men, it affects the urethra by causing painful urination and an abnormal discharge. It can also affect the mouth, throat, and anus of both men and women.
    Gonorrhea
  182. which is caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum, has many symptoms that are difficult to distinguish from other STDs.
    Syphilis
  183. which is a rounded, fleshy prominence located over the pubic symphysis
    mons pubis
  184. are the vaginal lips that protect the other external genitalia and the urethral meatus
    labia majora and labia minora
  185. is an organ of sensitive, erectile tissue located anterior to the urethral meatus and the vaginal orifice.
    clitoris
  186. produce a mucus secretion to lubricate the vagina. These two small, round glands are located on either side of the vaginal orifice
    Bartholin’s glands
  187. is the beginning of the menstrual function
    Menarche
  188. is the normal termination of the menstrual function in a woman during middle age
    Menopause
  189. is the term used to designate the transition phase between regular menstrual periods and no periods at all
    Perimenopause
  190. is an abnormal absence of menstrual periods for 90 days or more
    Amenorrhea
  191. also known as intermenstrual bleeding, is excessive uterine bleeding at both the usual time of menstrual periods and at other irregular intervals
    Menometrorrhagia
  192. is the occurrence of menstrual cycles more frequently than is normal
    Polymenorrhea
  193. is mammoplasty performed to increase breast size.
    Breast augmentation
  194. is mammoplasty performed to decrease and reshape excessively large, heavy breasts. Breast reduction is the opposite of breast augmentation.
    Breast reduction
  195. also called a breast lift, is a mammoplasty to affix sagging breasts in a more elevated position
    Mastopexy
  196. is a woman who has never been pregnant
    nulligravida
  197. is a woman who has never borne a viable child
    nullipara
  198. is a woman during her first pregnancy
    primigravida
  199. is a woman who has borne one viable child
    primipara
  200. means a woman who has given birth two or more times
    Multiparous
  201. also known as pregnancy-induced hypertension or toxemia, is a complication of pregnancy characterized by hypertension (high blood pressure), edema (swelling), and proteinuria (an abnormally high level of protein in the urine).
    Preeclampsia
  202. which is a more serious form of preeclampsia, is characterized by convulsions and sometimes coma. Treatment for this condition includes the delivery of the fetus.
    Eclampsia
  203. is a disorder in which the placenta separates from the uterine wall before the birth of the fetus.
    Abruptio placentae
  204. occurs when the buttocks or feet of the fetus are positioned to enter the birth canal first instead of the head.
    Breech presentation
  205. is the abnormal implantation of the placenta in the lower portion of the uterus
    Placenta previa
  206. also known as a crackle, is an abnormal crackle-like lung sound heard through a stethoscope during inspiration (breathing in).
    rale
  207. are coarse rattling sounds that are somewhat like snoring. These sounds are usually caused by secretions in the bronchial airways
    Rhonchi
  208. is an abnormal, high-pitched, musical breathing sound caused by a blockage in the throat or in the larynx (voice box).
    Stridor
  209. is an abnormal sound or murmur heard during auscultation of an artery. These sounds are usually due to a partially blocked, narrowed, or diseased artery
    bruit
  210. are performed to determine the compatibility of blood donor and the recipient before a blood transfusion. Agglutination is a positive reaction that indicates the donor unit is not a suitable match.
    Crossmatch tests
  211. measures the amounts of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and triglycerides in a blood sample
    lipid panel
  212. also known as pro time, is a test used to diagnose conditions associated with abnormalities of clotting time and to monitor anticoagulant therapy.
    Prothrombin time
  213. is the surgical puncture of the abdominal cavity to remove fluid
    Abdominocentesis
  214. is a surgical puncture of the joint space to remove synovial fluid for analysis to determine the cause of pain or swelling in a joint
    Arthrocentesis
  215. is the puncture of the pericardial sac for the purpose of removing fluid
    Pericardiocentesis
  216. combines tomography with radionuclide tracers to produce enhanced images of selected body organs or areas.
    Positron emission tomography

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