# Science Glossary Terms Electricity Chapter 12

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 Author: Anonymous ID: 288094 Filename: Science Glossary Terms Electricity Chapter 12 Updated: 2014-11-04 07:25:45 Tags: Glossary Terms Chapter 12 Folders: Glossary Terms,Science,Chapter 12,Electricity Description: Chapter 12 Glossary Terms Electricity Show Answers:

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1. Direct Current (DC)
• Current in which charge particles travel through a circuit in only one direction
• e.g. Cellphone, flashlight
2. Alternating Current (AC)
• Current in which electrons move back and forth in a circuit
• e.g. Oven, heater, toaster
3. Transformer
• An electrical device that changes the size of the potential difference of an alternating current
• Types of transformers: Step up, step down, three phase, single phase
4. Circuit Breaker
• A safety device that is placed in series with other circuits, which lead to appliances and outlets
5. Fuse
• A safety device that is found in older buildings and some appliances; like a circuit breaker, it is placed in series with other circuits, which lead to appliances and outlets
6. Electrical Power
• The rate at which an appliance uses electrical energy
• Measured in Watts (W), although the practical unit for most appliances is the kilowatt (kW)
7. Watt (W)
A unit of electrical power
8. Kilowatt (kW)
A practical unit of electrical power; 1 kW = 1000 W
9. Electrical Energy
• The energy that is used by an appliance at a given setting; determined by multiplying the power rating of an appliance by the length of time it is used
• Refer to kW⋅h
10. Kilowatt-hour (kW⋅h)
• The practical unit of electrical energy
• Combines the units for power x time.
11. EnerGuide Label
• A label that gives details about how much energy an appliance uses in one year of normal use
12. Smart Meter
• A meter that records the total electrical energy used hour by hour and sends this information to the utility company automatically
13. Time of use pricing
• A system of pricing in which the cost of each kW⋅h of energy used is different at different times of the day
• There are three different time of use prices: off-peak, mid-peak, and on-peak use.
• The electricity that is consumed by an appliance or device when it is turned off
• You can prevent a phantom load by unplugging the device
15. Efficiency
• The ratio of useful energy output to total energy input, expressed as a percentage
• Formula: Percent Efficiency = useful energy output/total energy output x 100 %
• The continuous minimum demand for electrical power
• In Ontario the minimum amount is about 12 000 MW.
• Generated Mainly by hydroelectric and nuclear generating stations, also by some coal-fired generating stations
17. Hydroelectric Power Generation
• The generation of electrical power using a source of moving water
• Types of hydroelectric plants: dam stations and run-of-river stations
• Run-of-river ex. Niagara Falls
• A demand for electricity that is greater than the base load and is met by burning coal and natural gas
• Roughly between 15 000 MW and 20 000 MW
• Met by fossil fuel generating stations
• The greatest demand for electricity, which is met by using hydroelectric power and natural gas
• Above 20 000 MW, and met by using hydroelectric and gas turbines
20. Renewable Energy Source
• A source of energy that can be replaced in a relatively short period of time
• e.g. Hydroelectric energy, and Wind energy
21. Non-Renewable Energy Source
• A source of energy that cannot be replaced as quickly as it is used
• e.g. Fossil fuels, nuclear power
22. Solar Energy
• Energy that is directly converted from the sun into electricity
• Solar energy is a renewable source of energy
• About 25% efficient, and are expensive to install
• e.g. Solar panels on houses, or solar cells on calculators
23. Photovoltaic Effect
• The generation of a direct current when certain materials are exposed to light
• Photovoltaic materials in a solar cell generate direct current when light strikes their surface
24. Biomass Energy
• Energy that is generated from plant and animal matter
• This process adds carbon dioxide to the atmosphere, but is carbon neutral because plant combustion returns to the atmosphere only as much carbon as the plants absorbed during their growth

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