Science Glossary Terms Electricity Chapter 12

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Science Glossary Terms Electricity Chapter 12
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2014-11-04 07:25:45
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Glossary Terms Chapter 12
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Chapter 12 Glossary Terms Electricity
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  1. Direct Current (DC)
    • Current in which charge particles travel through a circuit in only one direction
    • e.g. Cellphone, flashlight
  2. Alternating Current (AC)
    • Current in which electrons move back and forth in a circuit
    • e.g. Oven, heater, toaster
  3. Transformer
    • An electrical device that changes the size of the potential difference of an alternating current
    • Types of transformers: Step up, step down, three phase, single phase
  4. Circuit Breaker
    • A safety device that is placed in series with other circuits, which lead to appliances and outlets
  5. Fuse
    • A safety device that is found in older buildings and some appliances; like a circuit breaker, it is placed in series with other circuits, which lead to appliances and outlets
  6. Electrical Power
    • The rate at which an appliance uses electrical energy
    • Measured in Watts (W), although the practical unit for most appliances is the kilowatt (kW)
  7. Watt (W)
    A unit of electrical power
  8. Kilowatt (kW)
    A practical unit of electrical power; 1 kW = 1000 W
  9. Electrical Energy
    • The energy that is used by an appliance at a given setting; determined by multiplying the power rating of an appliance by the length of time it is used
    • Refer to kW⋅h
  10. Kilowatt-hour (kW⋅h)
    • The practical unit of electrical energy
    • Combines the units for power x time.
  11. EnerGuide Label
    • A label that gives details about how much energy an appliance uses in one year of normal use
  12. Smart Meter
    • A meter that records the total electrical energy used hour by hour and sends this information to the utility company automatically
  13. Time of use pricing
    • A system of pricing in which the cost of each kW⋅h of energy used is different at different times of the day
    • There are three different time of use prices: off-peak, mid-peak, and on-peak use.
  14. Phantom Load
    • The electricity that is consumed by an appliance or device when it is turned off
    • You can prevent a phantom load by unplugging the device
  15. Efficiency
    • The ratio of useful energy output to total energy input, expressed as a percentage
    • Formula: Percent Efficiency = useful energy output/total energy output x 100 %
  16. Base Load
    • The continuous minimum demand for electrical power
    • In Ontario the minimum amount is about 12 000 MW. 
    • Generated Mainly by hydroelectric and nuclear generating stations, also by some coal-fired generating stations
  17. Hydroelectric Power Generation
    • The generation of electrical power using a source of moving water
    • Types of hydroelectric plants: dam stations and run-of-river stations 
    • Run-of-river ex. Niagara Falls
  18. Intermediate Load
    • A demand for electricity that is greater than the base load and is met by burning coal and natural gas
    • Roughly between 15 000 MW and 20 000 MW
    • Met by fossil fuel generating stations
  19. Peak Load
    • The greatest demand for electricity, which is met by using hydroelectric power and natural gas
    • Above 20 000 MW, and met by using hydroelectric and gas turbines
  20. Renewable Energy Source
    • A source of energy that can be replaced in a relatively short period of time
    • e.g. Hydroelectric energy, and Wind energy
  21. Non-Renewable Energy Source
    • A source of energy that cannot be replaced as quickly as it is used
    • e.g. Fossil fuels, nuclear power
  22. Solar Energy
    • Energy that is directly converted from the sun into electricity
    • Solar energy is a renewable source of energy
    • About 25% efficient, and are expensive to install
    • e.g. Solar panels on houses, or solar cells on calculators
  23. Photovoltaic Effect
    • The generation of a direct current when certain materials are exposed to light
    • Photovoltaic materials in a solar cell generate direct current when light strikes their surface
  24. Biomass Energy
    • Energy that is generated from plant and animal matter
    • This process adds carbon dioxide to the atmosphere, but is carbon neutral because plant combustion returns to the atmosphere only as much carbon as the plants absorbed during their growth

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