# Chapter 12 Science

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1. Direct Current (DC)
DC (direct current) is the unidirectional flow or movement of electric charge.

• -It only flows in one direction unlike AC current
• Related Terms:

• -Alternating current (AC)
• -Transformers
2. Alternating Current (AC)
AC is an electric current that reverses its direction many times a second at regular intervals

• -It flows in different direction unlike DC
• Related Terms:

• -Direct Current (DC)
• -Transformers
3. Transformer
An apparatus for reducing or increasing the voltage of an alternating current.

• -Used for distributing electricity to homes
• -Used for transportation of energy in general by Alternating Current
• - Used to decrease the voltage
• -Used to increase voltage

• Related Terms:
• - Alternating Current
4. Circuit Breaker
An automatic device for stopping the flow of current in an electric circuit as a safety measure.

5. Fuse
A safety device consisting of a strip of wire that melts and breaks an electric circuit if the current exceeds a safe level.

6. Electrical power
Electric power is the rate at which electric energy is transferred by an electric circuit

• Related Terms:
• -Watt
7. Watt (W)
The unit is defined as joule per second and can be used to express the rate of energy conversion or transfer with respect to time.

• Related Terms:
• -Joule
8. Kilowatt (kW)
The kilowatt hour, or kilowatt-hour, (symbol kWh, kW. · h, or kW h) is a unit of energy equal to 1,000 watt-hours, or 3.6 megajoules.

• Related Terms:
• -Watt
• -Joules
9. Electrical energy
Electrical energy can be used to move charged particles through a wire from a power plant to our homes and businesses.

- energy made available by the flow of electric charge through a conductor

Related Terms:
10. Kilowatt-hour (kW∙h)
• One kilowatt-hour is defined as the energy consumed by power consumption of 1kW during 1 hour:
• 1 kWh = 1kW · 1h
• One kilowatt-hour is equal to 3.6·106 joules:
• 1 kWh = 3.6·106 J
• The energy E in kilowatt-hour (kWh) is equal to the power P in kilowatts (kW), times the time t in hours (h).E(kWh) = P(kW) · t(h)
11. EnerGuide label
The EnerGuide label is a tool to help you make an energy-wise choice when buying a new appliance. It shows how much energy appliances consume in a year of normal service (measured in kWh)

• Related Terms:
• -Kilowatt-hour
12. Smart Meter
A smart meter is usually an electronic device that records consumption of electric energy in intervals of an hour or less.

-All houses and building have these in Kitchener

• Related Terms:
• -Kilowatt-hour
13. Time of Use Pricing
Time-based pricing includes fixed time-of use rates for electricity.

• Related Terms:
• -Kilowatt-hour
• -smart meter
Phantom load, or leaking electricity, refers to the electric power consumed by electronic and electrical appliances while they are switched off or in a standby mode.

-Applies to anything that has a clock on it or some kind of energy consumer like an LED
15. Efficiency
Energy efficiency is a way of managing and restraining the growth in energy consumption.

• Related terms:
• -Smart Meters