Card Set Information
What is histology?
The study of tissues
What are the four basic tissues of the body?
Connective, Muscle, Epithelial, Nervous
What type of tissue has few cells with lots of extracellular material?
Where is connective tissue found?
Between organs and other tissues
What are four examples of connective tissues?
Blood, Bone, Cartilage and General Connective
What type of tissue is highly specialized to shorten or contract?
Where is muscle tissue found?
Skeletal muscles, heart and other internal organs
What are three examples of muscle tissue?
Skeletal, Smooth and Cardiac
What type of tissue is found as coverings and lining the body?
Where is epithelial tissue found?
Always found as surface tissue
What type of tissue conducts electricity/sends electrical signals in the body?
What are three examples of nervous tissue?
Brain, Spinal Cord and Nerves
What are the three shapes of epithelial tissue cells?
Squamous(flat), Cuboidal, Columnar
In reference to epithelial tissues what are the two types of layers?
Simple(single layer) and Stratified(multiple layers)
What is secretion and give an example?
Release of molecules from cells
ie (cooling)sweat, digestive enzymes and crying
What is absorption and give an example?
Bringing small molecules into the body
ie absorption of nutrients in the small intestine
What is excretion and give an example?
Elimination of waste from the body
What are the four functions of epithelial tissue?
Secretion, Absorption, Excretion and Protection
What are five common characteristics of epithelial tissues?
Always surface tissues
One surface is unattached to another tissue
Avascular(lack blood vessels)
Have nerve endings and sensory receptors
Mitotically active capable of regenerating
What does simple squamous mean?
Single layer of flat cells
What is the function of simple squamous tissue?
Where are simple squamous tissues found?
Inner lining of the circulatory system and small sacs of the lungs(alveoli)
What does simple cuboidal mean?
Single layer of cube shaped cells
What is the function of simple cuboidal tissue?
Secretion and absorption
Where are simple cuboidal tissues found?
Glands of the body(ovaries, salivary glands, pancreas)
What does simple columnar mean?
Single layer of column shaped cells
What is the function of simple columnar tissues?
Secretion and absorption
Where are simple columnar tissues found?
Digestive tract(stomach-->anal canal)
What does pseudostratified columnar mean?
Single layer of cells with varying heights
What is the function of pseudostratified columnar tissues?
Where are pseudostratified columnar tissues found?
Upper respiratory tract
What does stratified squamous mean?
Multiple layers of flat cells
What is the function of stratified squamous tissues?
Protection from abrasion
Where are stratified squamous tissues found?
Outer layer of skin, mouth-->esophagus
What does stratified columnar mean?
Multiple layers of column shaped cells
What is the function of stratified columnar tissues?
Where are stratified columnar tissues found?
Parts of the throat and voice box
(rare in the body)
What does transitional(stratified cuboidal) mean?
'Transitions' between being six to three layers thick
What is the function of transitional(stratified cuboidal) tissues?
Designed to stretch
Where are transitional(stratified cuboidal) tissues found?
What are the two components of connective tissue?
Cells and Extracellular Matrix(ECM)
Which connective tissue is 'soft'?
General Connective Tissue
Which connective tissue is 'firm to rubbery'?
Which connective tissue is 'hard'?
Which connective tissue is 'fluid'?
In connective tissues what is the relation of Extracellular Matrix(ECM) to cells?
Higher % Extracellular Matrix(ECM)
Lower % Cells
What are the two different types of cells that can be found in general connective tissue?
Fixed and Wandering
What are the four types of
cells in general connective tissues?
Mesenchymal, Fibrocyte, Adipose and Elastic
What are mesenchymal cells?
Stem cells of the connective tissue proper
What are Fibrocyte cells?
Cells that produce extracellular fibers(collagen or elastic fibers)
What are adipose cells?
Cells specialized to store lipid energy reserves
What are elastic cells?
Cells that produce type III collagen or reticular fibers
What are 'wandering cells'?
Body defense and repair cells of the white blood cell family
What is the extracellular matrix(ECM) made of?
A water environment with soluble macromolecules of proteins and carbohydrates and larger insoluble protein chains(protein fibers)
What are the two types of elastic fibers?
Loose Mesh and Dense Mesh
What are the two types of dense mesh fibers?
Dense Irregular Mesh and Dense Regular Band
In a dense irregular mesh of fibers how are the fibers oriented and how does this relate to their strength?
Oriented in many different directions and strong in all directions
In a dense regular band of fibers how are the fibers oriented and how does this relate to their strength?
Oriented all in one direction and strong in one direction
What is the structure, distribution and function of loose connective tissue?
Structure- small amount of collagen
Distribution- attaches to epithelium, surrounds vessels, neurons and muscle fibers
Function-creates space for passage of vessels and nerves
What is the structure, distribution and function of dense irregular connective tissue?
Structure- lots of collagen in many directions
Distribution- Dermis sclera(outer layer of eye)
Function- strength in all directions
What is the structure, distribution and function of dense regular connective tissue?
Structure- lots of collagen in one direction
Distribution- tendons and ligaments
Function- strength in one direction
What is the structure, distribution and function of elastic tissue?
Structure- lots of elastin
Distribution- skin, lungs, arteries and veins
Function- to stretch and recoil
What is the structure, distribution and function of adipose tissue?
Structure- lots of adipose cells
Distribution- beneath skin, around organs and in bone marrow
Function- energy storage, insulation and to cushion & protect