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Renewed Religious struggle
-shift from central to ____ Europe; Lutherans/Zwinglians to non-Lutheran Protestants
-equally dogmatic, aggressive, and irreconcilable church systems
1. first adopted by ____ eventually by politicians and leaders- politiques
-wars of religion were internal national conflicts and truly ____ wars
The French Wars of Religion
-persecution of French Protestants - Huguenots
1. appease ____
2. ____ to anti-Catholic rhetoric; Edict of Fontainebleau and Chateaubriand
-power shift from France to Spain because of death of Henry 2 and competition between the ____, Montmorency-Chatillons and Guises families for ____ dominance.
- Charles V
Appeal of Calvinism
-ambitious ____ and discontented townspeople joined Calvanist churches; secular and religious ____ mixed
Catherine De Medicis and the Guises
-Queen mother Medicis tried to ____ Protestant and Catholic factions
1. January Edict; massacre at Vassy ____ French wars of religion
-The peace of saint-germain-en-laye
1. acknowledged the power of Protestant nobility, granted Huguenots religious freedoms within their ____ and the right to fortify their cities.
2. Crown caught between fanatical ____ and Guise extremes
-the Saint Bartholomew's day ____ made the religious struggle in Europe an international struggle for survival
-Protestant Resistance Theory
1. Calvin condemned willful ____ and rebellion against constituted governments as un-Christian ____ one was a lawful part of a tyrannical government
2. John Knox- First blast of the trumpet against the terrible regiment of Women
3. Francois Hotman - Franco Gallia, Theodore Baza - on the right magistrates over their sunjects; plessis mornay - defense of liberty against Tyrants
the rise to power of Henry of Navarre
-Henry III steered a ____ ____ between the Catholic League and the Huguenots; sought alliances with people who put ____ survival above religious unity.
1. Peace of Beaulieu ____; Day of Barricades fails; alliance struck with Henry of Navarre
2. Henry of Navarre becomes Henry IV and brings ____ to France
- middle course
The Edict of Nates
-Treaty of ____ ends hostilities between Spain and France
-Granted Huguenots freedom of ____, right of assembly, admission to public offices and universities, and permission to ____ towns.
- public worship
The Catholic counter reformation can be seen in the ______ style art
The art of protestants is
gentle and restrained
French family whose power lay in the south and west
French family who controlled the center of France
Ruled eastern France
The French ______ were mostly Huguenots
______ granted Huguenots the freedom to worship publicly outside towns
______ marked the beginning of the French wars of religion
Massacre at Vassy
______ granted Huguenots the right to religious freedom and the right to fortify their cities
peace of Saint-Germain-en-laye
______ changed the conflict between families into an international struggle for survival for Protestansts
Saint Bartolomew's Day massacre
Protestant theories of resistance three great works
- Franco-Gallia by Francois Hotman
- On the right of magistrates over their subjects by Theodore Beza
- Defense of liberty against tyrants by philippe du Plessis Mornay
______ ended the French wars of religion
Henry of Navarre
A solemn pledge to resist the decrees of Trent and the Iquisition in Netherlands
Phillip II sent ______ to suprress Protestant dissent, started the Council of Blood
duke of Alba
______ lead to ______, which declared internation sovernty in matters of religion
- Spanish Fury
- Pacification of Ghent
______ ended the Spanish insights into Netherlands
in the ______ William of Orange denounce Phillip II
The nether lands rejected Phillip II and accepted ______ as their soverign
How did politics shape the religious positions of the French leaders? What led to the Saint Bartholomew’s Day Massacre, and what did it achieve?
Politics greatly shaped the religious positions of the French leaders, especially Catherine de Medicis, the queen mother. Catherine de Medicis’ rein exemplifies the political struggle of three powerful French families, the Bourbons, Montmorency-Chatillons, and the Guises, who were Protestant, Protestant, and strictly Catholic, respectively. The Queen mother first sided with the Protestant French families; however, after the Duke of Guise massacred many Protestants, the Queen mother, out of fear for the Guises, sided with the Catholic family. Catherine de Medicis, like the Guises, wanted a Catholic France, but she feared a Guise-dominated monarchy, so she tried to balance one side against the other. After Catherine de Medicis sided with the Guises, she felt extreme Guise pressure to silence Protestants after the Protestant leader Coligny was assassinated by the Guises. Catherine feared a Protestant attack on the crown, so she coordinated attacks across France that killed 20,000 French Protestants, later named the Saint Bartholomew’s day massacre. The massacre caused the civil conflicts between families in France to become international wars of religion
How did Spain gain a position of dominance in the sixteenth century? What were Philip II’s successes and failures?
The Spanish were able to gain a position of dominance in the sixteenth century in four major ways. The Spanish were able to accumulate large wealths because of the influx of bullion from the New World. Also, the Spanish benefited economically through their increasing population, which triggered inflation. Dominating through political means, Phillip II was able to organize the lesser nobility into a loyal and efficient bureaucracy which allowed him to effectively handle work and war. Philip II also succeed by entering war in the Mediterranean against the Muslims. Finally, the wars of religion occurring in the Mediterranean increased the size and abilities of the Spanish navy, making Spain a major military force in Europe. However, as Philip II became occupied in the Mediterranean, he was not able to subdue revolts in the Netherlands, which proved to be the undoing of Spanish dreams of world empire.
Henry of Navarre (Henry IV of France), Elizabeth I, and William of Orange were all politiques. What does that term mean and why does it apply to these three rulers?
Henry of Navarre, Elizabeth I, and William of Orange were all politiques, those who put political and national unity above religious differences to strengthen the nation. Henry of Navarre was a politique because he sought the middle course between the Catholic league and the Huguenots. Similarly, Elizabeth I put the political unity of England over the religious unity. William of Orange, finding the middle ground in Netherlands, can be considered a politique because he resisted the Spanish Catholic, creating the Compromise, a solemn pledge to resist the decrees of Trent and the Inquisition.
What led to the establishment of the Anglican Church in England? Why did Mary I fail? What was Elizabeth I’s settlement, and why was it difficult to impose on England? Who were her detractors and what were their criticisms?
The Anglican Church was established by Elizabeth I because she was able to merge a centralized episcopal system that she firmly controlled with broadly defined Protestant doctrine. Mary I failed to establish the Anglican church because she was strictly Catholic; she did not want to compromise with Protestant views. Elizabeth I hoped to avoid both Catholic and Protestant extremism by pursuing a middle way. It was successfully imposed on many Catholics and Protestants; however, some extreme Protestant groups disagreed with Elizabeth’s decision. The Puritans and the Congregationalists, who didn’t want to see any Catholic compromises, refused to accept Elizabeth’s doctrines which resulted in them leaving England for more Protestant lands.
Why was the Thirty Years’ War fought? Was politics or religion more important in determining the outcome of the war? What were the main terms of the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648?
The Thirty Years’ War, although originally fought because of religious discrepancies, quickly became a war for political affairs, money, and land, drawing in Europe’s greatest nations. Ultimately the promise of political growth that the Thirty Years’ War promised, because the promise brought many powerful nations into the War, largely determined the outcome of the Thirty Years’ War. The Treaty of Westphalia in 1648, which ended the war, reinstituted the Peace of Augsburg, which gave the ruler of the land the power to determine religion, and recognized Calvinism as an official religion.
Why has the Thirty Years’ War been called the outstanding example in European history of meaningless conflict? Was it really such? Were the results worth the cost of the war?
The Thirty Years’ War has been called the outstanding example in European history of meaningless conflict because it epitomizes a conflict, that had deep religious motivations but greed and politics were the real forces at work; thus, the Thirty Years’ War was meaningless because it had no concrete purpose. The Thirty Years’ War was politically worthless; however, for religions, the Thirty Year’s War was very important for determining the people’s ability to practice their religion. Nevertheless, the results of the war, millions of dead and the destruction of Germany, were not worth the recognition of Calvinism and the reversion back to the ideas expressed in the Peace of Augsburg.