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Sudden transient alterations of brain function caused by an abrupt explosive disorderly discharge of cerebral neurons.. altered level of arousal, convulsions- seizure with tonic-clonic movement, epilepsy-seizure recur without treatment
Due to edema, excess CSF, or hemmorrage normal amount is between 5 to 15 mmgh
excess fluid within the cranial vault, subarachnoid space or both. low reabsorption or high fluid production or an obstruction.
Coup and countercoup :
Whiplash, is an impact within the skull, shearing forces through the brain. the head strikes the wall coup and then rebounds contrecoup
Most common type traumatic brain injury 2/3 head injury result in deaths. Stretching and tearing at the cellular levels cells die. Confusion, amnesia, headache,dizziness, ringing in the ears, nausea, vomiting, slurred speech, fatigue. change in personality
- Brain bleed, broken blood vessels, blunt trauma.
- Arterial Bleed less fatalities, fast to present middle meningeal artery temporal lobe 85%, BBB intact-blood not touching the brain opening the skull arterial bleed cause IICP
venous bleeding between dura mater and arachnoid, Fall in the elderly, shaken baby syndrome, subacute 2 days-2 weeks, chronic elderly etoh. Cerebral cortx. lucid interval is where they might seem fine after an injury, as time progresses, headache, vomiting, drowsiness,loss of consciousness, confusion pupils inequal of size, coma, fatality. BBB damaged
- venous or arterial,
- penetrating injury and shearing force traumatizes small blood vessels CVA countercoup. Necrosis macrophages phagosytosis of the cerebral cortex. Penumbra blood in the inside,
Cerebrovascular accident: CVA
- stroke, most frequent occurring neurological disorder, 3rd leading cause of death in the USA
- Ischemia: infarction(death of the brain tissue)
- hemorrhage: necrosis
inflammation of the CNS: Meningitis
- Bacterial highest fever, pia mater, subarachnoid space, ventricles, csf. Systemic/bloodstream or direct extension from an infected area.
- Aseptic: viral, enterovirus, mumps, herpes simplex, influenza
- Fungal less common, chronc
infection of the brain, acute fibrile illness, usually of viral origin with the nervous system involvement.
Dementia, mid cognitive impairment, alzheimers disease,parkinsons disease, lateral schlerosis ALS. MS Guillan Bare
- Senility= decreased cognitive function due to ae
- Dementia=mental impairment of the elderly, hypoxic events
- MCI= more than normal impairment of abilities memory mental processing
- ALzheimers=irreversible genetic disease in which neurons deteriorate, causing loss of cognitive function primary memory movement recognition
- Parkinsons=neurodegenerative disorder,tremors, rigidty, slow movement, poor balance ad difficulty walking deficient dopamine, concussion
tau protein tangles: become defective and no longer stabilize microtubules properly
Amyloid plaques: between the nerve cells protein fragment broken down and eliminated but in alx the accumulate forming plaques
- severe degeneration of the basal ganglia
- loss of dopamine producing cells
- Dopamine: inhibitory of neurotransmitters
- Acytecholine: stimulatory neurotransmitters
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
rapidly progressive, degenerative motor neuron disease. attacks somatic neurons,ideopathic, 99% fatalitites in two years common side effects is pain and weakness leads to respiratory failure and death, lou Gehrig 40-60yrs of age.
MS: multiple Sclerosis
- blurred vision or double vision, red-green color of even blindness in one eye
- muscle weakness in extremities and difficulty with coordination and balance, speech inpediments, tremors, and dizziness, diffuse pain and muscle weakness
- Attacking the myelin in the CNS
- acute peripheral neuropathy that results in limb weakness that progresses in days or at most 4 weeks
- Immune reactions to infection can lead to demyelination of peripheral neurons. 30 % still have weakness after 3 years may suffer with muscle weakness or tingling
Cant be a carrier, Duchenne MD- is in kids most common, abscense of dystropin, a protein involoved in maintaining the integrity of muscles. onset is between 3-5 years cant walk by age 12.Girls in these families have a 50% chance of passing the disease,
Adults muscle spams,cataracts, cardiac abnormalities, endocrine disturbances. Long thin face drooping eyelids, swan-like necks.
Neuromuscular junction disorders
- Myasthenia gravis: acetycholine receptors
- chronic autoimmune disease an Igg antibody is produced against acetycholine blocking and destroying. weakness and fatigue of muscles of the eye and throat diplopia difficulty chewin talking and swallowing