Chapter 2: Phase 1- Food Safety
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What is the difference between direct contamination and cross contamination?
- Direct Contamination: Cannot do anything about it. Comes from environment food is grown in.
- Cross contamination: Responsible by humans, improper hygiene, poor food handling procedures.
What are the three types of hazards related to food safety?
- Biological: Disease causing microorganisms (bacteria, molds, yeasts, viruses, fungus)
- Chemical: Cleaning agents, pesticides, toxic metals
- Physical: Glass chips, earnings, metal shavings, bits of wood or other foreign matter.
What is the leading cause of food borne illnesses?
What type of bacteria is not a sanitation concern?
What type of bacteria is dangerous when consumed by humans?
What does PHF stand for?
Potentially Hazardous Food
What are examples of potentially Hazardous Food?
- Food high in protein / animal based products
- cooked grains
- some cooked vegetables
What is the temperature danger zone?
410 to 1350 degreesFahrenheit
What is the time and temperature principle?
- Keep Cold Foods Cold
- Keep Hot Foods Hot
- Keep Frozen Foods Frozen
What do bacteria need in order to grow?
- Acid/Alkali Balance (pH of 6.6-7.5)
- Atmosphere (aerobic, anaerobic, facultative)
What does it mean if a bacteria is facultative?
It is adaptable to both aerobic and anaerobic environments
What is trichinosis?
- A parasite found in undercooked meat
- Primarily found in pork meat
FDA recommends cooking to 1450
for 15 seconds
What is Anisakiasis?
A parasitic roundworm found in bottom feeding fish or fish taken from contaminated waters.
Cook to 1350 is only way to kill larvae
What is cyclospora?
A single cell parasite found in water or food contaminated by infected feces.
What are the most common fungi?
Yeasts and molds
What type of fungus only affects the appearance and flavor of foods?
What two things can kill yeast?
Salt and high temperature (>136o)
What are the three types of chemical hazards in food contamination?
- Residual chemicals used in growing the food: antibiotics, fertilizers, pesticides
- Food service chemicals: industrial cleaners
- toxic metals: leeching of metals in pots/pans
How can cross-contamination be reduced or eliminated?
- Personal cleanliness
- Dish and equipment cleanliness
- pest management
What does HACCP stand for?
Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points
it is a critical system of self inspection.
What is a critical control point in the HACCP used for?
To identify and mitigate any step in the processing of food that can result in mistakes that can result in the transmission, growth or survival of pathogenic bacteria.
At what temperature must all foods be reheated at?
All food must be reheated at 1650
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