psych quiz #5

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nik8222
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288269
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psych quiz #5
Updated:
2014-11-05 17:15:08
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ualbany socialpsych
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chapters 12+7
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  1. elaboration likelihood model
    assumes people want to have the "correct" attitudes
  2. elaboration likelihood model: central route
    • make person think carefully about what is being said
    • best when person can think carefully
    • influenced by strength and quality of argments
  3. elaboration likelihood model: peripheral route
    • influence person through cues that are irrelevant to the actual message
    • person is unwilling or unable to process message content carefully
    • Influence by cues that irrelevant to the message itself (amount of information or attractiveness of communicator)
  4. source variables
    • who is trying to do the persuading
    • people arguing with same exact words can have different effect (liberal vs. socialist leaders)
  5. credibility
    • messages from experts are more believable and more persuasive than messages from non-experts
    • gain credibility by: 
    • - saying things audience agree with
    • - arguing against self-interest
    • - saying something unexpected
    • - having knowledge of the topic
  6. sleeper effect
    • sleeper effect-the delayed effectiveness of a message from a non-credible source
    • over time, the effects of credibility fade
    • non-credible sources become persuasive
  7. Hoveland and Weiss (1951)
    • sleeper effect example
  8. Attractiveness
    • appearance: physically attractive persuaders are more effective 
    • likeability: saying nice things to others often increases ability to persuade
    • similarity: more persuaded when the communicator seems more like us
  9. message content
    • what makes a message persuasive, independent of the source
    •    - vividness
    •    - fear and humor
    •    - one-sided vs. two-sided arguments
    •    - repeating a message
  10. vividness
    • the use of graphic message as opposed to data and facts to persuade (reason vs. emotion)
    • can help when facts are dry
    • ex: this is your brain on drugs commercial
    • more educated people are less persuaded by vivid appeals
    • ex: josh gerstein is highly persuaded by visuals
    • can sometimes distract point of mesage
  11. fear
    • appeals can be either vivid or evidence-based
    • mixed evidence for fear appeals
    • ex: cigarette smoking, brain on drugs
  12. protection-motivation theory
  13. one-sided vs. two-sided appeals
    • one-sided: present only your arguments
    • two-sided: acknowledge opposition's case and refute it (more effective with people who initially agree and are well informed)
  14. channel variables
    • how is the message being sent
    • the medium itself
    • self-generated persuasion
    • rapid speech
    • powerful speech
  15. medium
    • Actively created attitudes are stronger and more persuasive
    • the more lifelike the medium, the more persuasive, in order: live, videotaped, audiotaped, written
  16. self-generated persuasion
    • Persuasion can’t change people’s minds; persuasion just sets up the proper conditions where people are willing to change their attitudes
    • having people list their own reasons for changing their attitudes
    • self-generated ideas are highly persuasive
  17. self generated persuasion
    • Gregory et al (1982)
    • had salesmen either use self-generated technique or simply listed reasons for having cable
    • 20% bought when given info on cable
    • 50% bought when they imagined the reasons
  18. rapid speech
    • people who speak quickly are generally more persuasive b/c they convey impression that they are more credible
    • Peripheral cue, thus works best when audience is not processing deeply (no time to think of counterarguments)
  19. powerful speech
    • confidence matters
    • hesitation (um, you know)
    • disclaimers (I'm not an expert, but)
    • qualifiers (sort of, I guess)
    • tag questions (don't you think?)
  20. powerful speech and gender
    • women are less likely to use powerful speech
    • men are more persuaded by women using powerless speech
    • women are more persuaded by women using powerful speech
    • possible solution: use powerful speech with friendly and affiliative non-verbal style
  21. audience variables
    • who is listening?
    •    - mood
    •    - age
    •    - need for cogntion
  22. mood
    • good moods appear to increase persuadability
    • Janis (1965) had people read persuasive messages while eating or without snacks. Those eating were more persuaded (also works with music)
  23. mood as information approach
    • negative moods: something is wrong and action is necessary
    • positive moods: everything is ok, no need to think
    • people in a positive mood think less hard
  24. helping in an emergency
    • most of social psychology has focused on helping in emergency situations
    • necessary conditions :
    • Latané and Darley studies:
    •    1. notice the event
    •    2. define as an emergency
    •    3. take personal responsibility 
    •    4. have ability to help 
    •    5. decide to intervene
  25. defining an emergency
    • sometimes obvious: car wreck or prof. has seizure
    • sometime mush less so: is the blind person lost? is that couple playing or fighting?
  26. how to resolve ambiguity in defining an emergency
    • look to other people (social comparison): do they seem concerned
    • if they seem concerned, then you should
    • if they don't you shouldn't
    • pluralistic ignorance: when someone looks at you to see if you're calm and you are b/c they are and vice versa - problem
  27. faulty inferences
    • no one is helping > must not be an emergency
    • why didn't i ask a question in a lecture
    •    - didn't want to look stupid
    • why didn't anyone else
    •    - they understood the lecture
  28. pluralistic ignorance only happens when...
    the event is ambiguous
  29. taking personal responsibility
    • Even when the event is unambiguous, may not help if they do not feel personally responsible
    • presence of others can lead to diffusion of responsibility
  30. presence of others...
    reduces helping
  31. more/less likely to help if you are with a friend rather than a stranger?
    more
  32. the seminarian study
    • video we saw in class
    • people going to talk about being a good samaritan 
    • half were were made late to study 
    • on way each person encountered a person in distress
    • people ahead of schedule more likely to help then on time and then late
  33. people are more inclined to help when...
    they take personal responsibility
  34. what is altruism
    helping another even when no benefits are offered or expected in return
  35. why do we help
    • selfish reason
    •    - genetic benefits
    •    - social exchange
    • altruistic reasons
  36. evolutionary psychology
    • why help others if our goal is to ensure our own survival?
    • positive take: helping is human nature
    • negative take: helping is for personal gain
  37. kin selection
    • to protect our kin
    • to look after the "pack"
  38. social exchange theory
    • helping is motivated to maximize rewards and minimize costs
    •    - we help b/c there are "rewards" associate with helping
    •    - "altruism" then, is simply disguised self-interest
  39. rewards of helping
    • reciprocity
    • satisfying relationships
    • positive public image
    • mood enhancement
  40. Chaldini's negative-state relief model
    • we help to relieve distress
    • helping makes us feel better
  41. mood and helping
    • if you feel your mood will change, more chance you will help
    • if you do not feel your mood will change, more chance you will not help
    • ex: mood freezing drink study
  42. negative mood leads to...
    helping (unless you feel your mood will not change)
  43. positive mood leads to...
    doing good to maintain the good mood
  44. argument that there is true altruism
    empathy
  45. empathy
    • two reactions to seeing someone suffer:
    •    - personal distress- pre occupied w/ own anxiety 
    •    - empathy- compassion and tenderness for victim (leads to helping)
  46. empathy and helping
  47. empathy can...
    over-ride self interest

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