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  1. Ways of Studying Evolution
    • Mechanism
    • Lineages
    • Evidence
  2. Mechanism Way of Studying Evolution
    • "How"
    • Microevolution
    • Macroevolution
  3. Lineages Way of Studying Evolution
    • "Who"
    • Phylogeny
  4. Evidence (Way of Studying Homology)
    • Anatomical Homology
    • Molecular Homology (DNA/RNA, Proteins)
    • FOssils
    • Biogeography
    • Development
    • Other
  5. Phylogenic Tree
    • evolutionary interrelationships among various species or other entities that are believed to have a common ancestor
    • Each node with descendants show the most recent common ancestor
    • Branch Lengths may show time estimates
    • Relations inferred using homologies
  6. Phylogenic Classifications
    • Monophyletic Groups
    • Paraphyletic Groups
    • Polyphyletic Groups
  7. Monophyletic Groups
    Ancestor and All Descendents
  8. Paraphyletic Groups
    Ancestor and some descendants
  9. Polyphyletic Groups
    Unrelated clades
  10. Approaches to Reconstructing Phylogeny
    • Evolutionary
    • Phylogenetic/Cladistic
    • Phenetics/Numerical
  11. Goal of Phylogeny
    Monophyletic Phylogenies
  12. Evolutionary Phylogeny
    • Classic Approach
    • Homologous characteristics
    • Traits that resemble each other based on common ancestry (Natural selection, Genetic drift)
    • Traits used based on expert opinion
  13. Phylogenetic/Cladistic Approach
    • Shared derived characteristics
    • CHaracteristics are determined to be ancestral, unique derived, or shared derived
    • Emphasizes how recently species shared an ancestor
    • Linage of descent: clades
  14. Phenetic/Numerical Approach
    • Uses all characters
    • Assigns a numerical value to characteristics
    • Disregards homology
    • Parallel (convergent) evolution may obscure relationships
Card Set:
2014-11-05 23:16:01
BIO 181 Exam III
Gettin' phylogenic up in this joint
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