# Comp. Ch. 2 Test

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1. bit
is a single circuit that either contains a current or does not
2. binary digits
used as a means of representing the off/on state of a computer switch, or bit.
3. binary numbers
a series of circuits whose patterns of off/on current is converted into strings of binary digits called binary numbers
4. byte
is a group of eight bits and is the method of representing one character of data, such as the essential numbers (0-9)
5. petabyte
6. exabyte
1 quintillion bytes
7. zettabyte
1 sextillion bytes
8. yottabyte
1 septillion bytes
9. hexadecimal numbers (hex for short)
A number system, referred to as base-16, that uses the numbers 0-9 and the letters A through F to represent a binary string in a shorter, more compact form
10. floating point standard
A notation standard, created by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) and used to represent numbers with fractional parts. There is no fixed number of digits before or after the decimal point, so the computer can work with very large and very small numbers PHEWWW
11. ASCII (The American Standard Code for Information Interchange)
most widely used character code, which is used in minicomputers, personal computers, and computers that make information available over the internet. ASCII uses seven bits and thus represents 128 (2^7=128)
12. Extended ASCII
uses eight bits and allows 128 additional characters, like the fractions 1/2l and 1/4; and logical symbols such as ><, for a total of 256 (2^8= 256)
13. system unit
is a boxlike case that comes in a variety of shapes and sizes, and houses the computer's main hardware components.
14. footprint
amount of physical space used by a device
15. tower case
a system unit case designed to sit on the floor next to a desk
16. minitower case
A smaller version of the tower that has less internal room for components is called a minitower case
17. form factor
is a specification for how internal components, such as the motherboard, are mounted inside the system unit
18. grounding bracelet
is a bracelet that has a cord attached to a grounded object.
19. cooling fan
keeps the system unit cool
20. internal speaker
one of the components inside a computer's system unit, typical useful for emitting beeps and other low-fidelity sounds
21. drive bays
accommodates the computer's disk drives, such as the hard disk drive, CD or DVD drive, and portable drives
22. expansion slots
receptacles that accept additional circuit boards or expansion cards
contain the circuitry for peripherals that are not normally included as standard equipment
24. motherboard
is a large flat piece of plastic or fiberglass that contains thousands of electrical circuits etched onto the board's surface.
25. integrated circuit (IC)/ chip
carries an electric current and contains millions of transistors.
26. Transistor
is an electronic switch (or gate) that controls the flow of electrical signals through the circuit
27. semiconductor
special material that transistors are made out of in layers
28. EBCDIC (pronounced "ebb-see-dic) Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code
Eight-bit code that IBM mainframe computers and some midrange systems use; ordered using a low-to-high sequence starting with punctuation, lowercase letters, uppercase letters, and then numbers.
29. Unicode
uses 16-bit  and can represent over 65,000 characters, and can symbolize all the world's written languages; the first 128 codes in the Unicode system represent the same characters in the ASCII system
30. central processing unit (CPU) microprocessor or processor
for short an integrated circuit chip is that is capable of processing electronic signals.
31. embedded processors
These processors are designed and programmed to perform only the tasks intended to be done by that device
32. heat sink
a heat dissipating component that drains heat from the chip
33. instruction set
a processor's list of instructions
34. native application
A program  that is compatible with a given processor and therefore capable of running on that processor
35. processing or machine cycle
A four-step process performed in the central processing unit (CPU) that involves the fetch, decode, execute, and store operations
36. control unit
under the direction of an embedded program, switches from one stage to the next and performs the action of that stage.
37. arithmetic logic unit (ALU)
The portion of the central processing unit that performs arithmetic operations, which return numeric values, and logical operations, which return a value of true or false.
38. arithmetic operations
One of two groups of operations performed by the arithmetic unit (ALU). The arithmetic operations are addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. An arithmetic operation returns to the value of the operation
39. logical operations
One of two groups of operations performs by the arithmetic logic unit (ALU). An example of logical operation is the comparison of data items to determine whether the first number is greater than the second Logical operations return a value of true or false
40. registers
are temporary storage areas located within the microprocessor.
41. Instruction cycle
fetch and decode
42. execution cycle
execute and store
43. word size
the maximum number of bits the CPU can process at once
44. system clock
is an electronic circuit that generates rapid pulses to synchronizes the computer's internal activities, including the movement from one stage of the machine cycle to another
45. gigahertz
billions of cycles per second
46. clock speed
The speed of the internal clock of a microprocessor that synchronizes and sets the pace of the computer's internal activities, including the movement from one stage of the machine cycle to another.
47. superscalar architecture
refers to the design of any CPU that can execute more than one instruction per clock cycle
48. pipelining
a technique that feeds a new instruction into the CPU at every step of the processing cycle so that four or more instructions are worked on simultanesouly
49. data dependency
if the CPU needs the results of a completed instruction to process the next one
50. data bus
is a set of parallel wires that acts as an electronic highway on which data travels between computer components
51. word size
the width of a CPU's data bus
52. speculative execution
the processor executes and temporarily stores the next instruction in case it proves useful
53. branch prediction
the processor tries to predict what will happen (with surprisingly high degree of accuracy).
54. parallel processing
a technique that uses more than one processor to execute a program
a process by which the CPU gives the user the illusion of performing instructions from multiple programs at once when in reality the CPU is rapidly switching between the programs and instructions
56. chipset
which is a collection of chips that work together to provide the switching circuitry needed by the microprocessor to move data throughout the computer
57. input/output (I/O) bus
refers specifically to the pathway that extends beyond the microprocessor to communicate with input and output devices.
58. PCI (peripheral component interconnect) bus
a slower bus that connects devices like hard drives and sound cards to the faster microprocessor system bus
59. memory
refers to the chips, located on the motherboard or within the CPU, that retain instructions and data to be accessed by the CPU
60. RAM
volatile memory, which means it is not permanent and its contents are erased when the computer's power is switched off

-Receive and hold program instructions and data while being used by the system

-Provide those instructions and data to the CPU when needed

-Hold the results of the CPU's processing until an instruction is received to transfer it to a printer or permanent storage device
61. memory address/ direct access storage (IBM)
(in binary form) enables the location to be found and the content within to be accessed directly
62. memory modules or memory cards
a small circuit board that holds several RAM chips and fits into special slots on the motherboard
63. dual inline memory modules (DIMM)
what most RAM are today; have 168-pin connector and a 64-bit data transfer rate
64. single inline memory module (SIMM)
used a 72-pin connector and a 32-bit data transfer rate
65. memory footprint
the amount of RAM the program uses while it operates
66. virtual memory
a term used to refer to a portion of the hard drive that the operating system treats as a portion of RAM when RAM is full
67. cache memory
is a small unit of ultrafast memory built into or near the processor  that stores frequently or recently accessed program instructions and data
68. primary cach
is a unit of 4KB to 16KB of ultrafast memory included in the microprocessor chip that runs at approximately 10 nanoseconds. Primary cache is the fastest memory
69. secondary memory
is a unit of up to 512KB of ultrafast memory that can be located within the microprocessor, but further from registers than lvl. 1 cache, or on a separate cache chip located on the motherboard
70. nanosecond
one-billionth of a second
71. Level 3 cache
is found on systems with newer microprocessors, like Intel's Xenon processor, that are located in some servers and workstations.
72. ROM
a type of nonvolatile memory in which instructions  are prerecorded and not erased when the system shut down
73. BIOS (basic i/o system)
the first code run when a system is powered on. It checks and initializes such devices as the keyboard, display screens and disk drives
74. CMOS
controls a variety of actions including starting the power-son self test and verifying that other components of the system are functioning correctly
a program that locates and loads the operating system into RAM
76. POST (power-on self test)
a program that is run when the system is started. It checks the circuitry and RAM, marking any locations that are defective so that they do not get used
can be written on only once, but requires a special writing device. It is used to hold startup programs that are bug free and are never meant to be changed.
78. EPROM
electrically programmable read-only memory is erasable PROM that can be reused many times.
79. EEPROM
electrical erasable programmable read-only memory that can be rewritten many times while the chip is on the computer
80. Flash EPROM
similar to EEPROM except that flash EPROMs are erased in blocks, whereas regular EEPROMs are erase one byte at a time.
81. drive activity light
indicates your hard drive is accessing data
82. power-on light
which indicates whether the power is on
83. connector
is a physical receptacle located on the system unit or on an expansion card that is visible on the outside of the unit
84. thumbscrews
small screws that are usually attached to the plug and and are used to connect the plug to the system unit or the expansion card extender to prevent an accidental disconnect
85. USB ports (universal serial bus)
can connect a variety of devices, including keyboards, mice, printers, and digital cameras, and were designed to replace older parallel and serial ports
86. hot swapping
is the ability to connect and disconnect devices without shutting down your computer
87. plug-and-play (PnP)
refers to a set of standards, jointly developed by the Intel Corporation and Microsoft, which enable a computer to automatically detect the brand, model, and characteristics of a device when you plug it in and configure the system accordingly
88. usb hub
a device that plugs into an existing USB port and contains four or more additional ports
89. FireWire
an interface Apple created and standardized as the IEEE 1394 High Performance Serial Bus specification
90. 1394 port
the name of FireWire on non-Apple systems
91. video graphics array (VGA) connector
a 15-pin male connector that works with standard monitor cables
92. digital visual interface (DVI) port
lets LCD monitors use digital signals
93. onboard video
video circuitry that is built into the motherboard on some computers
94. ExpressCard
is a credit card-sized adapter that fits into a designated  slot to provide expanded capabilities such as wireless communication, additional memory, multimedia, or security features
95. legacy technology
is an older technology, device, or application that is being phased out in favor of new advances in technology
96. serial ports
were one of the earliest types of ports and were often used dial-up modems to achieve two-way communication
97. parallel ports
were commonly used to connect a PC to a printer but have been replaced by USB ports and Ethernet ports
98. PS/2
were typically used for mice and keyboards, but were not interchangeable.
99. SCSIs (pronounced scuzzy)
small computer interface ports were a type of parallel interface that enabled users to connect  up to 15 SCSI-compatible  devices, such as printers, scanners, and digital cameras, in a daisy-chain series
 Author: gabilog ID: 288375 Card Set: Comp. Ch. 2 Test Updated: 2014-11-08 01:55:41 Tags: penis Folders: Business in Computers Tests Description: CompCh2 Show Answers: