Biodiversity

Card Set Information

Author:
chanchan27104
ID:
288387
Filename:
Biodiversity
Updated:
2014-11-09 14:20:37
Tags:
biology
Folders:
BIO 181 Exam III
Description:
Biodiversification
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  1. Biodiversity Patterns
    • Time
    • Distribution
    • Habitat
  2. Biodiversity Time Pattern
    Fossil Record - diversity of types of organisms increased over time
  3. Biodiversity Distribution
    Greatest near equator and declines poleward
  4. Biodiversity in Habitats
    Generally more diverse with greater habitat diversity
  5. Causes of Endangered Species
    • Habitat Destruction
    • Introduction of exotic species
    • Overexploitation
    • Disease
    • Pollution
    • Limited Distribution
  6. Extinction
    • Complete loss of a species from Earth
    • Normal Process
  7. Causes of Extinction
    • Natural Processes
    • Climate Change
    • Disease
    • Competition
    • Habitat alteration
  8. Mass Extinctions
    • Catastrophic Event
    • Huge number of species went extinct
    • Five major events in last 500 million years
    • 50-95% of species extinct
    • Recovery followed
    • Large turnover in plants and animals
  9. Three Ways to Recognize Biodiversity
    • Genetic 
    • Species
    • Ecosystems
  10. Genetic Diversity
    • Total genetic information within all individuals of a species
    • Number and frequency of alleles in a species
  11. Species
    • Variety of species on Earth
    • Taxonomy
    • Some lineages have lots of species
    • Some lineages have few species
  12. Ecosystem Diversity
    • Variety of biotic communities
    • May not have sharp boundaries
    • Alteration alters number of species and Genetic diversity
    • Altered by species changes and changes in abiotic conditions
  13. Where is biodiversity the highest?
    • Highest in tropics and lowest at poles
    • Greatest Biodiversity: tropical rainforests and coral reefs
  14. Hotspot
    Area with greater species richness
  15. Criteria for Conservation Hotspots
    • At least 1500 endemic (found no where else) plant species
    • Have lost at least  70% of their primary vegetation
    • 25 regions
  16. Causes of Extinction
    • Invasive/exotic species introduction by humans
    • Overhunting
    • Habitat Loss
    • Overharvesting
    • Nonhuman Factors 
    • Invasive species
  17. Habitat Destruction
    • Destruction of Habitat
    • Area becomes uninhabitable for species
    • No where to live
  18. Common Causes of Habitat Destruction
    • Logging forests
    • Damming rivers
    • Draining wetlands
    • Developing land
  19. Habitat Fragmentation
    Reduces habitat to an area too small to support some species
  20. Tropical Deforestation
    • 10.4 million hectares/yr in 2000-2005
    • Destroyed due to population/economic pressure
  21. Social Impacts of Tropical Deforestation
    • Alters environment of native peoples
    • Changes balance of power and living areas in tropical countries
  22. Soil Impacts of Tropical Deforestation
    • Tropical soils are very thin and poor in nutrients
    • Nutrients bound in plants
    • Logging carries away nutrients
    • Exposes soil to erosion 
    • Destroys ecosystem for centuries
  23. Problems From Tropical Deforestation
    • Loss of products (latex, nuts, fibers, spices, oils, medicines)
    • Loss of Genetic Diversity
  24. Why is Biodiversity important?
    • Ecosystem services
    • Processes that increase the quality of the abiotic environment (oxygen production, reduce soil erosion)
    • Increase productivity
    • Stability
    • Availability of germoplasm
    • Ecoturism
  25. Why is Taxonomy Important?
    • Most species on Earth remain unclassified
    • May become extinct before known
    • Possible uses
    • Roles in ecosystem (keystone species)
  26. The "Big Five" Extinctions
    • End of Cretaceous
    • End of Triassic
    • End of Permian
    • End of Denovian
    • Ordovician-Silurian

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