ch 13 psychology

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ch 13 psychology
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  1. the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another. 
     
    attribution theory 
    fundamental attribution error 
    social psychology
    social psychology
  2. the theory that we explain someone's behavior by crediting either ^ the situation or the person s disposition. 

    social psychology 
    fundamental attribution error 
    attribution theory
    attribution theory
  3. the person's stable, enduring traits, personality, ability, emotions.

    attribution theory 
    disstribution theory
    disstribution theory
  4. the tendency for observers, when analyzing another's behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition. 

    fundamental attribution error 
    social psychology 
    attribution theory
    fundamental attribution error
  5. feelings, often influenced by our beliefs, that predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events. 

    role 
    attitude 
    peripheral route persuasion
    attitude
  6. occurs when people are influenced by incidental cues, such as a speaker's attractiveness. 

    attitude 
    peripheral route persuasion
    central route persuasion
    peripheral route persuasion
  7. occurs when interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts. 

    central route persuasion 
    peripheral route persuasion
    The Foot-in-the-Door Phenomenon
    central route persuasion
  8. The tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request. 


    foot-in-the-door phenomenon 
    central route persuasion 
    peripheral route persuasion
    foot-in-the-door phenomenon
  9. set of expectations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave. 

    role 
    attitude 
    The power of the situation
    role
  10. When people act in a way that is not in keeping with their attitudes, and then change their attitudes to match those actions, ______  _______theory attempts to explain why. 

    Actions role
    Attitudes role
    cognitive dissonance
    cognitive dissonance
  11. the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent, for example, when we become aware that our attitudes and our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes. 

    cognitive dissonance theory 
    culture 
    The power of the situation
    cognitive dissonance theory
  12. the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next. 

    culture 
    norm
    conformity
    culture
  13. an understood rule for accepted and expected behavior. Norms prescribe "proper" behavior. 

    culture
    norm
    conformity
    norm
  14. • Which of the following strengthens conformity to a group? 

    a. Finding the group attractive 
    b. Feeling secure 
    c. Coming from an individualist culture 
    d. Having made a prior commitment
    ANSWER: a
  15. social psychologist's obedience experiments "belong to the self-understanding of literate people in our age" 

    Leon Festinger's (1957) 
    Stanley Milgram (1933-1984)
    Stanley Milgram (1933-1984)
  16. adjusting our behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard.
    conformity
  17. influence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval. 

    informational social influence 
    normative social influence
    normative social influence
  18. influence resulting from one's willingness to accept others' opinions about reality. 

    normative social influence 
    informational social influence
    informational social influence
  19. Tanya Chartrand and John Bargh captured this mimicry, which they call 

    "mood contagion" 
    chameleon effect 
    Mimicry
    chameleon effect
  20. -to feel what others are feeling. 

    mood linkage 
    chameleon effect 
    empathize
    empathize-
  21. -sharing up and down moods 

    chameleon effect 
    empathize- 
    mood linkage—
    mood linkage-
  22. • Psychology's most famous obedience experiments, in which most participants obeyed an authority figure s demands to inflict presumed life-threatening shocks on an innocent other, were conducted by social psychologist _________  __________.

    Stanley Milgram 
    Le Chambon
    Norman Triplet
    Stanley Milgram
  23. improved performance on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others. 

    conformity 
    informational social influence 
    social facilitation
    social facilitation
  24. the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable. 

    social loafing
    deindividuation 
    group polarization
    social loafing
  25. the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity. 

    group polarization 
    deindividuation 
    social loafing
    deindividuation
  26. the enhancement of a group's prevailing inclinations through discussion within the group. 

    deindividuatiors 
    social loafing 
    group polarization
    group polarization
  27. • People tend to exert less effort when working with a group than they would alone, which is called ______ ______.

    group polarization l 
    social loafing
    ANSWER: social loafing
  28. ^ ; • When like-minded groups discuss a topic, and the result is the strengthening of the prevailing opinion, this is called ______ _______.

    social loafing 
    group polarization
    ANSWER: group polarization
  29. * When a group's desire for harmony overrides its realistic analysis of other options, _______has occurred. 

    groupthink 
    deindividuation 
    social loafing
    groupthink
  30. an unjustifiable and usually negative attitude toward a group and its members. _____________ generally involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and a predisposition to discriminatory action. 

    prejudice 
    stereotype 
    discrimination
    prejudice
  31. a generalized (sometimes accurate often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people. 

    Prejudice 
    stereotype 
    discrimination
    stereotype
  32. unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group and its members. 

    discrimination
    stereotype 
    prejudice
    discrimination
  33. tendency for people to believe the world is just and that deserve what they get. deserve what they get. 

    ingroup
    outgroup 
    ingroup bias 
    just-world phenomenon
    just-world phenomenon
  34. "Us"—people with whom we share a common identity. 


    Ingroup 
    outgroup 
    ingroup bias
    ingroup
  35. "Them"—those perceived as different or apart from our ingroup. 

    ingroup 
    outgroup 
    just-world phenomenon
    outgroup
  36. the tendency to favor our own group. 

    ingroup bias 
    outgroup 
    ingroup
    ingroup bias
  37. the theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame. 

    ingroup bias 
    scapegoat theory 
    just-world phenomenon
    scapegoat theory
  38. 1 When prejudiced judgment causes us to find an undeserving person to blame for a problem, that person is called a _______.

    aggression 
    outgroup 
    ingroup bias 
    scapegoat theory
    ANSWER:  scapegoat
  39. the tendency to recall faces of one's own race more accurately than faces of other races. Also called the cross-race effect and the own-race bias. 

    aggression
    other-race effect
    other-race effect
  40. any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy. 

    aggression 
    stereotypes 
    scapegoat
  41. aggression
  42. the principle that frustration—the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal—creates anger, which can generate aggression. 

    frustration-aggression principle 
    Temperature and retaliation 
    Neural Influences
    frustration-aggression principle
  43. culturally modeled guide for how to act in various situations. 

    social script
    the script
    the scripture
    social script
  44. the phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them. 

    mere exposure effect 
    Physical Attractiveness 
    Extreme makeover
    mere exposure effect
  45. People tend to marry someone who lives or works nearby. This is an example of the ________   __________  ________in action. 

    Extreme makeover team
    mere exposure effect 
    Psychology of Attraction
    mere exposure effect
  46. Two vital components for maintaining companionate love are ______ & ________-________.
    passionate love, equity 
    equity, self-disclosure 
    equity, passionate love
    ANSWERS: equity- self-disclosure
  47. an aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship. 

    passionate love 
    companionate love
    passionate love
  48. the deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined. 

    companionate love 
    passionate love 
    equity
    companionate love
  49. a condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it. 

    companionate love
    self-disclosure 
    equity
    equity
  50. revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others. 

    equity 
    self-disclosure 
    altruism
    self-disclosure
  51. unselfish regard for the welfare of others. 

    equity 
    self-disclosure 
    altruism
    altruism
  52. 1. If we encounter a person who appears to be high on drugs, and we make the fundamental attribution error, we will probably attribute the person's behavior to 

    a. moral weakness or an addictive personality. 
    b. peer pressure. 
    c. the easy availability of drugs on city streets. 
    d. society's acceptance of drug use.
    1. a
  53. 2. Celebrity endorsements in advertising often lead consumers to purchase products through 
    __________(central/ peripheral) route persuasion.
    2. peripheral
  54. 5. We tend to agree to a larger request more readily if we have aheady agreed to a small request. This tendency is called the ______-_______-________-__________phenomenon. 

    foot-in-the-door 
    social exchange theory
    frustration-aggression principle
    3. foot-in-the-door
  55. Researchers have found that a person is most likely to conform to a group if 

    a the group members have diverse opinions. 
    b. the person feels competent and secure 
    c. the person admires the group s status. 
    d. no one else will observe the person's behavior.
    5. c
  56. 6. In Milgram's experiments, the rate of compliance was highest when 

    a. the "learner" was at a distance from the "teacher." 
    b. the "learner" was close at hand. 
    c. other "teachers" refused to go along with the experimenter. 
    d. the "teacher" disliked the "learner."
    6. a
  57. In a group situation that fosters arousal and anonymity, a person sometimes loses self-consciousness and self-control. This phenomenon is called _________.

    conflict 
    grit
    discrimination
    deinidividuation,
    8. deindividuation
  58. 9. Sharing our opinioions with like-minded others tends to strengthen our views, a phenomenon referred to as ____ _______.

    superordinate goals, 
    self-disclosure
     scapegoat theory 
    group polarization
    group polarization
  59. 10. Prejudice toward a group involves negative feelings, a tendency to discriminate, and overly generalized beliefs referred to as ____________.

    conflict
    aggression, 
    ingroup
    stereotypes
    10. stereotypes
  60. If several well-publicized murders are committed by members of a particular group, we may tend to react with fear and suspicion toward all members of that group. In other words, we 

    a. blame the victim. 
    b. overgeneralize from vivid, memorable cases. 
    c. view the world as just. 
    d. rationalize inequality-
    11. b
  61. '2. The other-race effect occurs when we assume that other groups __________(more/less) homogeneous than our own group.
    12. more
  62. 13. Evidence of a biochemical influence on aggression is the finding that 

    a. aggressive behavior varies widely from culture to cultilture. 
    b. animals can be bred for aggressiveness. 
    c. stimulation of an area of the brain's limbic system produces aggressive behavior. 
    d. a higher-than-average level of the hormone testosterone is associated with violent behavior in males.
    13. d
  63. 14. Studies show that parents of delinquent young people tend to use beatings to enforce discipline. This suggests that aggression can be 

    a. learned through direct rewards. 
    b. triggered by exposure to violent media. 
    C. learned through observation of aggressive models. 
    d. caused by hormone changes at puberty.
    14. c
  64. 15. A conference of social scientists studying the effects of pornography unanimously agreed that violent pornography 

    a. has little effect on most viewers. 
    b. is the primary cause of reported and unreported rapes. 
    c. leads viewers to be more accepting of coercion in sexual relations. 
    d- has no effect, other than short-term arousal and entertainment.
    15. c
  65. 16. The aspect of X-rated films that most directly influences men's aggression toward women seems to be the 
    a. length of the film. 
    b. eroticism portrayed. 
    c. depictions of sexual violence. 
    d. attractiveness of the actors.
    16. c
  66. The more familiar a stimulus becomes, the more we tend to like it. This exemplifies the ________   ________effect. 


    . mirror-image 
    group polarization 
    mere exposure 
    social-cognitive
    • mere exposure
  67. A happy couple celebrating their 50th wedding anniversary is likely to experience deep  _____. love, even though their _________love has probably decreased over the years. 

    mirror-image 
    mere exposure 
    companionate- passionate
    18. companionate; passionate
  68. 19. After vigorous exercise, you meet an attractive person, and you are suddenly seized by romantic feelings for that person This response supports the two-factor theory of emotion, which assumes that emotions, such as passionate love, consist of physical arousal plus 

    a. a reward. 
    b. proximity. 
    c. companionate love. 
    d. our interpretation of that arousal.
    19. d
  69. 20. The bystander effect states that a particular bystander is less likely to give aid if 

    a. the victim is similar to the bystander in appearance. 
    b. no one else is present. 
    c- other people are present. 
    d. the incident occurs in a deserted or rural area.
    20. c
  70. 21. Our enemies often have many of the same negative impressions of us as we have of them. This exemplifies the concept of _______-______perceptions. 

    mere exposure 
    mirror-image 
    obsessive-compulsive
    mirror-image
  71. 22. One way of resolving conflicts and fostering cooperation is by giving rival groups shared goals that help them override their differences. These are called __________ goals. 

    depression 
    stereotypes 
    superordinate
    22. superordinate
  72. the theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs. 

    reciprocity norm 
    social-responsibility norm 
    social exchange theory
    social exchange theory
  73. an expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them. 

    social-responsibility norm < 
    social trap 
    reciprocity norm
    reciprocity norm
  74. an expectation that people will help those dependent upon them. 

    social-responsibility norm 
    reciprocity norm
    social-responsibility norm
  75. a perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas. 

    conflict 
    social trap 
    reciprocity norm
    conflict
  76. a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior. 

    social-responsibility norm 
    conflict 
    social trap
    social trap
  77. mutual views often held by conflicting people, as when each side sees itself as ethical and peaceful and views the other side as evil and aggressive. 

    mirror-image perceptions 
    superordinate goals
    reciprocity norm
    superordinate goals
  78. Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension-Reduction—a strategy designed to decrease international tensions.
    GRIT

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