Science Exam 2014 (atomic science, metallurgy, acids and bases)
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What is a physical change and it's signs?
A physical change is not a permanent change. You can easily get back the material you started with.
signs - The substance changes state (liquid to gas or solid to liquid etc), easily reversed
What is a chemical change and it's signs?
A chemical change occurs when a new substance is formed. We usually look to see if two or more signs have occured to say that a chemical change has happened and a new substance is formed.
Signs - irreversible, colour change, different smell, heat given out or absorbed
What are the 3 main particles that atoms are made out of and their relative charge?
- Proton: +1
- Neutron: 0
- Electron: -1
What does P.I.N stand for?
PROTONS and NEUTRONS in the nucleus
Tiny particles that make up everything in the world
How do you work work out the number of neutrons?
By subtracting the atomic mass by the mass number. (biggest number by the smallest)
use this to complete a shell diagram
EC = 2,1 And if this was in a chemical reaction it would be easy to take away 1 electron to have a full shell.
What is a compound? (atomic science)
- When atoms of two or more elements are chemically bonded together.
- (more than 1 capital letter is a compound)
What is a mixture? (atomic science)
When two or more substances are mixed together, but not chemically combined. E.g air is a mixture of oxygen and carbon dioxide.
an atom or molecule with a net electric charge due to the loss or gain of one or more electrons.
Reactant + _____ = ______
- Reactant + Reactant = Product
What is an element
An element is a substance consisting of atoms which all have the same number of protons - i.e. the same atomic number.
What is an acid?
a sour substance that you can sometimes eat or drink. Strong acids can eat away things like skin, pain, wood, etc. (releases H+ ions)
What is a base
an acid opposite that will remove hydrogen (acid) ions from a solution (Bases release OH- ions)
What is the difference between a base and an alkali
A base will remove hydrogen ions from a solution. An alkali is a base that dissolves in water.
the PH scale (universal indicator)
If a substance is strongly acidic what number and colour would it be on the PH scale
0-3 and red
If a substance was strongly basic what number and colour would it be on the PH scale?
PH 13 and dark blue
If a substance is neutral what colour and number would it be
Ph 7 and green
Explain neutralisation with examples (indigestion)
Indigestion is caused by acid rising up into your oesophagus. Your stomach is protected from the acid because it produces a protective music to prevent the acid from getting to the cells of your stomach wall. However, the oesophagus does not produce any protective music so the acid burns the lining of your oesophagus. The pain can be quickly treated by using an indigestion (antacid) tablet. These tablets are usually alkalis that neutralize the excess acid in your stomach and oesophagus
Acid + base --> Salt + water
3 examples with Hydrochloric acid, sulfuric, and nitric acid using sodium hydroxide
Hydrochloric acid + sodium hydroxide --> sodium Chloride + water
Sulfuric acid + Sodium hydroxide --> Sodium sulfate + water
Nitric acid + Sodium hydroxide --> sodium nitrate + water
What does M.A.S.H stand for?
Metals + Acids --> salt + hydrogen
What is the short form for Hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid and nitric acid
- Hydrochloric: HCl
- Sulfuric Acid: h2So4
- Nitric Acid: HNO3
*the numbers in bold
been they use to down below*
What is the short for chlorides, sulfates and nitrates?
- Chloride: Cl
- Sulfate: So4
- Nitrate: No3
*numbers in bold been they should be down below
Write down the short form equation for:
Hydrochloric acid+ Sodium hydroxide -->Sodium Chloride + water
HCl + NaOH --> NACl + h20
Write down the short form equation for:
Sulfirc acid + potassium hydroxide --> Pottasium sulfate + water
H2SO4 + 2KOH --> K2SO4 + h20
What is an alloy
An alloy is a mixture of two or more elements one or more of which is a metal.
Metal + oxygen ----> Metal ___
Metal + oxygen ---> metal oxide
What is rust and how is it preserved?
- Metals rust when they are exposed to the environment (oxygen)
- To prevent corrosion you can create a barrier by using vaseline, nail polish or even paint. You can even wrap something like nickel or copper around the iron to prevent it from corrosion
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