Chemistry Glossary Terms - Chapter 4

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ReneeF
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288449
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Chemistry Glossary Terms - Chapter 4
Updated:
2014-11-16 21:53:03
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Chemistry
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Grade 9 Science Chemistry Terms - Chapter 1 of 3
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  1. Matter
    • def: anything that has mass and occupies space
    • e.g: solid, liquid, gas
    • can either be a mixture or a pure substance

  2. Pure Substance
    • def: matter that contains only one kind of particle
    • cannot be broken down further by physical methods
    • can either be an element or a compound

  3. Mixture
    • def: matter that contains more than one kind of particle
    • - can be separated by physical methods
    • - can be either a mechanical mixture or a solution
    • mechanical mixture: physical combination of two or more particles in which you see the different phases
    • solution: physical combination of two or more particles that look like one

    •   
    • mechanical mixture          solution
  4. Element
    • def: a pure substance that cannot be broken down into simpler parts and still retain its properties
    • cannot be broken down chemically or physically

  5. Compound
    • def: a pure substance made of two or more different elements that are chemically combined
    • can be broken down chemically

  6. Physical Property
    • def: a characteristic of a substance that can be observed and measured without changing the identity of the substance
    • qualitative physical properties: can be observed and described without detailed measurement
    • e.g: colour, odour, state, texture (rough, smooth), lustre (shiny, dull), malleability (ability to bend; pliability), and clarity (how well light passes through; transparent, translucent, opaque)
    • quantitative physical properties: can be measured and assigned a particular value
    • e.g: viscosity, melting point, boiling point, solubility, hardness, conductivity, density

    • yellow/gold, solid, rough corners and edges/smooth sides, shiny, opaque
  7. Viscosity
    def: the measure of a substance's resistance to flow

      
  8. Melting Point
    def: the temperature at which a solid turns into a liquid

  9. Boiling Point
    def: the temperature at which a liquid turns into a gas

  10. Solubility
    • def: the measure of the ability of a substance to dissolve in another substance
    • maximum amount of a substance that can dissolve in a given amount of solvent
    • highly soluble if large amounts can dissolve in the solvent

  11. Density
    • def: the ratio of the mass of a substance to the volume it occupies
    • expressed as g/cm3 or g/mL
    • density of water is 1g/mL
    • if a substance has a smaller density than water it will float, a larger density will sink
    • D=m/V : where D=density (g/cm3 or g/mL), m=mass (g), and V=volume (cm3 or mL)

  12. Chemical Property
    • def: behavior of a substance as it changes (reacts) and forms new substances
    • types of chemical properties include: reactivity with water, reactivity in oxygen, reactivity with acids, reactivity with another pure substance, combustibility, stability, and toxicity

  13. Combustibility
    • def: the ability of a substance to burn in air/react with oxygen to produce carbin dioxide
    • e.g: propane is used as a fuel to cook and heating hot air balloons

    •   
    • propane BBQ
  14. Stability
    • def: the ability of a substance to remain unchanged
    • when a compound is unstable and breaks down, it forms a new substance, which is a chemical change
  15. Toxicity
    def: the ability of a substance to cause harmful effects in plants and animals

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