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This topology is an old one and essentially has each of the computers on the network daisy-chained to each other. The advantage is that it is cheap to setup. However the disadvantages are that it creates excessive network traffic, a failure may affect many users, and problems are difficult to troubleshoot.
The star topology uses twisted pair (10baseT or 100baseT) cabling and requires that all devices are connected to a hub. Advantages are centralize monitoring, failures on the network do not affect others, and it is easy to modify
These are combinations of the Bus and Star topologies and are very common in large networks.
In this topology, every node has a connection to every other node in the network. It is very expensive, but also provides full redundancy in case of a failure.
POINT TO POINT NETWORK
Basically building to building
Point to Multi-Point NETWORK
Basically, a building to client bridges, and then to a building or other clients
Hubs are connected to each other, then all hubs connect to clients
The 7 Layers of Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model
- 1. Physical
- 2. Data Link
- 3. Network Layer
- 4. Transport
- 5. Session
- 6. Presentation Layer
- 7. Application (API) Layer
Physical layers describe the electrical or optical signals used for communication. Physical layer of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model is only concerned with the physical characteristics of electrical or optical signaling techniques which includes the voltage of the electrical current used to transport the signal, the media type (Twisted Pair, Coaxial Cable, Optical Fiber etc), impedance characteristics, physical shape of the connector, Synchronization etc
The Data Link layer resides above the Physical layer and below the Network layer. Datalink layer is responsible for providing end-to-end validity of the data being transmitted.