Psychology: Memory & Cognition
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What are the 3 major types of investigation into memory and cognition?
- Cognitive Psychology
What is introspection?
A method of investigation into memory and cognition by questioning someone to get to their thoughts.
What was Wundt's theory on introspection?
That all thoughts could be broken down into key elemental thoughts like objects being broken down into atoms.
What is behaviourism?
A method of investigation into memory and cognition by focusing on 'observable' phenomena (stimuli and behaviour)
What is the computer metaphor for cognitive psychology?
That people are like computers. Our brain is the hardware (computer chips) and our mind is the software. Cognitive psychology is the study of the mind/how the software works.
What is mental chronometry?
It refers to the speed of thought - how long does it take to decide that a shape is a triangle or a circle?
In the triangle circle task, what are the two components?
The simple reaction time (time it takes to respond when you see any shape) and the choice reaction time (time it takes to respond differently depending on the shape you saw)
In the triangle circle task, what instruction would you receive when your simple reaction time is being measured, and when your choice reaction time is being measured?
- Simple reaction time: press the button when you see any shapeChoice reaction time: press left if you see a circle and right if you see a triangle.
How do you calculate the time to decide/choose when performing the triangle circle task? Justify.
Time to Choose = Choice RT - Simple RT
Simple Reaction Time = press (fast) - press the button when you see any shape
Choice Reaction Time = press (fast) - press the button when you see any shape AND evaluate/decide (slower) - press left if you see a circle and right if you see a triangle
What are the two processes involved in the subtractive methodology of the triangle circle task?
- Press (fast): press the button when you see any shape
- Evaluate/decide (slower): press left if you see a circle and right if you see a triangle
What is the letter task?
- It asks how long does it take to retrieve the name of the letter 'a' from memory?
- The instruction is to press the left key if the letters have the same name (aa or aA or AA) and press the right key if they have different names (ab or aB)
Time to retrieve physically identical
AA - time to retrieve name identical
aA = time to retrieve the name of the letter 'a'.
What is the delayed letter task?
- It is the same as the letter task, but a delay is inserted between letter presentations:
- A --> 1.5 sec --> A
- A --> 1.5 sec --> a
What is the significance about the time gap in the delayed letter task?
If the time difference is due to you retrieving the meaning of the stimuli, the gap allows you to retrieve meaning of stimulus and difference between the physically identical group and identical name groups should disappear.
What type of measures does cognitive psychology rely on?
Unlike introspection, cognitive psychology relies on measured based on observable behaviour and infer from observable behaviour.
Where is memory made, encoded and retrieved?
Which statement is correct?
(A) Cognitive psychology is concerned where and how memories are formed
(B) Cognitive psychology is concerned with how memories are formed
(C) Cognitive psychology is concerned with where memories are formed
(D) Cognitive psychology is not concerned with memories.
(B) Cognitive psychology is concerned with how memories are formed - what cognitive processes are involved? - investigation into the 'software' or the mind (not the brain)
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