Chapter 4: Radiation Biology

Card Set Information

Author:
TranDo92
ID:
288542
Filename:
Chapter 4: Radiation Biology
Updated:
2014-11-09 02:25:36
Tags:
Radiation Biology
Folders:

Description:
Chapter 4 of Review Book
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user TranDo92 on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. TD 5/5 indicates the dose requred to cause a 5% chance of injury to people irradiated within ___following exposure.
    A. 5 days
    B. 5 years
    C. 5 minutes
    D. 5 hours
    B. TD 5/5 indicate 5% chance of injury within 5 years following exposure.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. LD 50/30 indicates the dose likely to cause death in 50% of the population within ___ following exposure.
    A. 30 days
    B. 30 hours
    C. 30 years
    D. 30 minutes
    A. LD 50/30 is the lethal dose to 50% of the population in 30 days following exposure
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. The TD 5/5 for the whole kidney using standard fractionation is approximately:
    A. 0.5 Gy
    B. 23 Gy
    C. 50 Gy
    D. 30 Gy
    B. The TD 5/5 for the whole kidney is about 23 Gy. Lower volumes of the kidney would increase the tolerance dose up to 50 Gy
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. The TD 5/5 for the whole brain using standard fractionation is approximately:
    A. 60 Gy
    B. 50 Gy
    C. 45 Gy
    D. 15 Gy
    C. TD 5/5 for the whole brain is 45 Gy. Lower the volume of brain would increase the tolerance up to 60 Gy
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. The period of organogenesis normally occurs during the ____ week(s) of fetal development.
    A. twentieth
    B. first two
    C. second through eighth
    D. fortieth
    C. Organogenesis, or the formation of organs, occurs during the second through the eight weeks of fetal development
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. The radiosensitivity in tissue may be enhanced by:
    A. Increasing the dose given
    B. Decreasing the volume of tissue irradiated
    C. Increasing the oxygen in tissue
    D. Decreasing the fractionation size
    C. Oxygen enhances the sensitivity to radiation by increasing the possibility of free radical production
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. The phase of cellular division most resistant to radiation is the ___phase.
    A. Go
    B. M
    C. S
    D. G1
    C. The "S" phase is most resistant to radiation. The "S" phase is the stage of DNA synthesis
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  8. The immediate symptoms that appear after an acute radiation exposure are called:
    A. Prodromal symptoms
    B. Chronic symptoms
    C. Latent symptoms
    D. Proportional symptoms
    A. The prodromal syndrome occurs immediately after a large acute radiation exposure. Nausea, of the prodromal stage of radiation sickness
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  9. The law of Bergonie and Tribondeau states that ionizing radiation is more effective against cells that are:
    A. a, c, and d
    B. Actively mitotic
    C. a, b, and c
    D. Have a long mitotic future
    E. Well differentiated
    F. Undifferentiated
    C. Cells that are highly mitotic, undifferentiated and have a long dividing life are most responsive to radiation according to Bergonie and Tribondeau
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. The development of a radiation-induced cancer is known as a (deterministic/strochastic) affect.
    stochastic. Stochastic effects occur long after radiation exposure; typically years following exposure
  11. Nausea is associated with the (hematologic/prodomal) syndrome.
    prodomal. Symptoms of the prodromal syndrome include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and anorexia
  12. Radiation interacts with tissue (uniformly/randomly).
    randomly. The effects of radiation in tissue are a consequence of random interactions.
  13. The (OER/RBE) describes the relative response to radiation in the presence or absence of oxygen.
    OER. OER is the acronym for oxygen enhancement ratio. This ratio compares the effects of radiation in oxygenated tissue to hypoxic tissues
  14. Cells are most sensitive during the (M,G2,S) phase of division.
    M. The phase of mitosis is the most sensitive phase of cell division
  15. The fraction of cells actually progressing through cycles of division is known as the (growth/surviving) fraction.
    growth. During division, a portion of the cells are dividing causing growth of the tumor and another portion is dormant. The portion of cells dividing is known as the growth fraction
  16. The period over which radiation is delivered is referred to as the (protraction/fractionation).
    protraction. Protraction is the time over which radiation is delivered. Protraction is tracked by documenting elapsed days during the therapy regimen.
  17. Erythematous skin reactions during fractionated radiation therapy are seen as a result of:
    A. Vascular dilation in the area
    B. Loss of skin cells in the area
    C. Extreme heat to the skin area
    D. Regeneration of skin cells in the area
    A. Erythema, or skin redness, is a result of vascular dilation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  18. Epilation may initially be observed in patients receiving radiation under standard fractionation schemes at an approximate dose of:
    A. 5 Gy
    B. 15 Gy
    C. 30 Gy
    D. 50 Gy
    B. Epilation, or hair loss, is typically observed after 15 Gy during standard fractionation (i.e. 2 Gy/day, 5 days/week)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  19. The production of free radicals most often occurs from the irradiation of:
    A. Salt
    B. Proteins
    C. RNA
    D. Water
    D. Free radicals are a result of the breaking of the chemical bond between hydrogen and oxygen molecules in water
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  20. Protracted or fractionated dose are better tolerated by tissue than single doses because:
    A. Tissue tolerance increases as dose increases
    B. Fewer cells will be struck by radiation
    C. Radiation damage cannot occur in previously killed cells
    D. Tissue repair occurs between exposures
    D. Protracted or fractionated doses allow for the repair of normal tissue
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  21. Which of the following is an effect of radiation on DNA?
    A. Free radical formation
    B. Increased viscosity
    C. Cross-linking
    D. Hydroxyl formation
    C. Cross-linking of broken segments of chromosomes are a consequence of DNA injury caused by radiation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  22. As the dose of radiation increases:
    A. Tissue recovery time increases until a certain dose threshold
    B. The recovery rate in tissue remains unchanged
    C. Tissue recovery time decreases
    D. Tissue recovery time increases
    C. The cumulative effect of radiation dose is the decreased ability for tissue to recover. This is desirable in the cancerous tissue and is demonstrated by increased severity of normal tissue injury as doses accumulate. Although normal tissue can recover more readily than cancerous tissue, more dose means longer delay in recovery
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  23. In linear or nonlinear threshold dose-response curves, the following is true of the response:
    A. Response may not occur at low doses
    B. Response will occur at all doses
    C. Response is proportional to dose
    D. Response will never be realized
    A. Threshold dose-response curves indicate that there is no overt response by exposed tissue below certain doses.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  24. Radiation sickness symptoms associated with the reduced number of leukocytes is a major characteristic of:
    A. Prodromal syndrome
    B. Gastrointestinal syndrome
    C. Hematopoietic syndrome
    D. Cerebrovascular syndrome
    C. Hematopoietic syndrome is caused by reduced blood cells. Leukocytes are most sensitive of blood cells are the first to show decrease leaving victims felling fatigued and vulnerable to deadly infections
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  25. The average energy deposited per unit of path length to a medium by ionizing radiation as it passes through that medium best describes:
    A. Tissue absorbed dose
    B. Linear energy transfer
    C. Radiation equivalent
    D. Radiation absorbed dose
    B. LET or linear energy transfer is the energy deposited in an absorber as radiation passes through
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  26. The most radiosensitive tissue group among the following is the:
    A. Alimentary tract
    B. Cardiovascular system
    C. Muscle
    D. Central nervous system
    A. Compared to the others, the epithelial cells in the alimentary tract have a longer mitotic future and divide more often that mature central nervous and connective tissues found in muscle and cardiovascular systems
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  27. The four Rs of radiation biology are:
    A. Reoxygenation, reimplantation, redistribution, repair
    B. Reoxygenation, repair, repopulation, reduction
    C. Reoxygenation, repopulation, reimplantation, redistribution
    D. reoxygenation, repopulation, redistribution, repair
    D. The four Rs include reoxygenation, repopulation, redistribution and repair
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  28. The whole body syndrome most likely to be observed follwoing a single dose of 1-10 Gy is the:
    A. CNS syndrome
    B. Hematopoietic syndrome
    C. Gastrointestinal syndrome
    D. Lethal dose syndrome
    B. At this dose range, a decrease in peripheral blood cells and depression of the bone marrow is likely to occur
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  29. Which of the following would be a stochastic or late radiation response?
    A. Sterility
    B. Skin erythema
    C. Lung cancer
    D. Bone marrow suppression
    C. The development of radiation induced lung cancer would occur 10-20 years following exposure. A stochastic effect is one that occurs much later after initial exposure
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  30. Which of the following is a more accurate representation of cell radiosensitivity?
    A. D37
    B. Dq
    C. LD 50/30
    D. Do
    D. The Do value on the cell survival curve most accurately represents the sensitivity of certain cells to radiation. The smaller the Do, the more radiosensitive
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  31. The standard radiation used to determine RBE is:
    A. 1 keV electrons
    B. Cobalt-60 gamma
    C. 250 keV x-ray
    D. 5 MeV alpha
    C. RBE value compares a test radiation to 250 keV xrays
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  32. The central nervous system syndrome may be observed in those exposed to single whole body doses of:
    A. 5000 cGy
    B. 10 Gy
    C. 300 cGy
    D. 500 Gy
    A. The single whole body dose of 5000 cGy or greater, would likely cause the exposed to suffer from the CNS syndrome
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  33. Without medical intervention, a person exposed to a single whole body dose of ___ may die within 10 days.
    A. 0.25 Gy
    B. 1.0 cGy
    C. 10 Gy
    D. 1.0 Gy
    C. Single whole body dose of about 10 Gy, or 1000 cGy would cause bone marrow suppression. Blood transfusion may rescue, but without this intervetion death would likely occur within 10 days
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  34. Normal tissue healing following radiation occurs by:
    A. Revitalization
    B. Repair
    C. Regeneration and Repair
    D. Regeneration
    C. normal tissue may recover from radiation exposure by regeneration of cells or repair of cellular damage
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  35. Irradiation of the salivary glands may lead to permanent xerostomia above doses of ___using the typical 2 Gy per treatment, 5 treatments per week fractionation scheme.
    A. 20 Gy
    B. 40 Gy
    C. 30 Gy
    D. 10 Gy
    B. High doses above 40 Gy may lead to permanent reduction in saliva
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  36. Exceeding the TD 50/5 for the spinal cord may lead to:
    A. perforation
    B. ulceration
    C. obstruction
    D. myelitis necrosis
    D. Beyond the tolerance of the spinal cord, there would likely be swelling and cell death
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  37. Tissue injury ___ as the volume of tissue irradiated increases.
    A. is not influenced
    B. decreases
    C. manifests as erythema
    D. Increases
    D. The more volume exposed the greater the injury. A smaller proportion of cells are left to repair and repopulate damaged cells when a greater volume is exposed
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview