- Hypoventilation: Insufficient air to the alveoli to provide O2 and remove CO2. It is influence by the rate and depth of respiration. -- high CO2 = increased respiration -- causes: opioids, surgery of thorax or abdomen, etc.
- hyperventilation: Low pCO2 (hypocapnia), blow off CO2 -- causes: pain, fever, anxiety, high altitude, obstructions, etc
Deficient blood O2, due to poor diffusio n at the alveoli or anemia wit low arterial O2 and low hb saturation.
Decrease tissue oxygenation. Four types:Hypoxic-hypoxia:PaO2 decreased despite normal carrying ability (high altitude) Anemic-hypoxia: Decreased O2 carrying capability, low Hb (sickle cell anemia)Cicularoty-hypoxia: Low cardiac output, O2 carrying capacity is normal, but blood flow is reduced. (blood loss, hemorrhaging) Histotoxic-hypoxia: toxic subtance leads to the inability of tissue to use available O2 (cyanide poisoning).
Acute respiratory failure: abnormal arterial blood gases, which is dx by an arterial stick. -- causes: quadriplegia, emboli, etc. -- CM: hyoxia, hypercapnia, confusion, decreased LOC (level of conscious), dizziness.