Nutrition 5

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bobbie2013
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Nutrition 5
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2010-08-03 16:54:27
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NUTR 330
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  1. A compound composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen with three fatty acids attached to a molecule of glycerol is called a_______________
    -triglyceride
  2. Ice cream, cheese, nuts and egg yolks

    a) do not contain lipids

    b) contain cholesterol

    c) contain visible fats

    d) contain invisible fats
    d) contain invisible fats
  3. The most abundant form of lipid present in the body is

    a) cholesterol

    b) sterol

    c) tryglyceride

    d) phospholipid
    c) tryglyceride
  4. True/False (support your answer with an explanation):

    Lecithin is a major constituent of cell membranes; therefore it is an essential nutrient
    False

    Lecithin is a major constituent of cell members; BUT it is not an essential nutrient because the body can synthesize it as needed
  5. Of the foods listed below, only____________contains cholesterol

    a) egg white

    b) margarine

    c) sour cream

    d) avocado
    c) sour cream
  6. The most common polyunsaturated fatty acid in foods is

    a) oleic

    b) linoleic

    c) linolenic

    d) arachidonic
    b) linoleic
  7. Vegetable oils are liquid because they contain large amounts of

    a) short-chain fatty acids

    b) unsaturated fatty acids

    c) medium-chain fatty acids

    d) omega-3 fatty acids
    b) unsaturated fatty acids
  8. Of the fats or oils listed below,____________is the best source of monounsaturated fatty acids

    a) safflower oil

    b) butterfat

    c) cononut oil

    d) olive oil
    d) olive oil
  9. Explain how the chemical composition of animal fat differs from that of fats of plant origin
    Animal fats tend to contain saturated fatty acids-palmitic and stearic fatty acid. As a result, they are solid at room temperature. The degree of saturation in animal fat depends on the diet of the animal and ranges from beef and mutton fat (hardest) to fish fat (softest).

    Oils from plant sources tend to contain oleic and linoleic fatty acids, which are unsaturated. Hence, they tend to be liquid at room temperature. The exceptions, coconut oil and palm oil, are highly saturated; however, while these substances are solid at room temperature, they are softer than animal fats because they are composed of fairly short carbon chains
  10. Hydrogenation is a process that

    a) makes unsaturated fats more solid

    b) results in foul-smelling fat

    c) increases the EFA content of dietary lipids

    d) increases the number of double bonds in a dietary fat
    a) makes unsaturated fats more solid
  11. A fat that is partially hydrogenated

    a) is fully saturated with hydrogen

    b) has some double bonds changed from cis form to trans form

    c) is more susceptible to oxidation than a fat that is not hydrogenated

    d) has double bonds converted from the trans form to the cis form
    b) has some double bonds changed from cis form to trans form
  12. A fat that has been oxidized

    a) loses EFA because double bonds have been broken

    b) is rancid because cis bonds are changed to trans bonds

    c) is more solid at room temperature than an unoxidized fat

    d) contains BHA and BHT
    a) loses EFA because double bonds have been broken
  13. ________will help to prevent oxidation of a fat

    a) heating to a high temperature

    b) partial hydrogenation

    c) adding a metal ion such as iron or copper

    d) all of the above
    b) partial hydrogenation
  14. Of the fatty acids listed below, only__________does not belong to the omega-3 series

    a) linoleic acid

    b) linolenic acid

    c) eicosapantenoic acid (EPA)

    d) docosahexaeonic acid (DHA)
    a) linoleic acid
  15. The major dietary sources of omega-6 fatty acids are ___________

    The major dietary sources of omega-3 fatty acids are____________and____________
    -vegetable oils (safflower, sunflower, corn, and soybeans)

    -fish and vegetable oils (especially canola and soybeans oils)
  16. Digestion of lipids occurs

    a) almost exclusively in the small intestine

    b) extensively in the stomach and the small intestine

    c) in the lacteals of the small intestine

    d) before emilsification by the bile acids
    a) almost exclusively in the small intestine
  17. Emulsification of dietary lipids

    a) must occur prior to ingestion for optimum utilization

    b) is accomplished by pancreatic lipase

    c) occurs in the stomach before digestion

    d) disperses and suspends fat droplets in a watery solution
    d) disperses and suspends fat droplets in a watery solution
  18. True/False (support your answer with an explanation)

    Bile is manufactured by the gallbladder to digest lipids
    False

    Bile is manufactured by the liver and stored in the gallbladder. Its function is to emulsify fats so that fat droplets can be dispersed and suspended in a watery solution for the pancreatic lipase to work on
  19. Long chain fatty acids and monoglycerides are absorbed into mucosal cells as tiny spherical complexes called__________
    -micelles
  20. After absorption into the mucosal cells, long-chain fatty acids

    a) enter the portal bloodstream and are transported to the liver

    b) enter directly into the lacteals and are transported by the lymphatic system

    c) are reassembled to form new triglycerides

    d) are hydrolyzed to glycerol and free fatty acids
    c) are reassembled to form new triglycerides
  21. _____________carry newly absorbed dietary lipids to target organs in the body

    a) High-density lipoproteins

    b) Low-density lipoproteins

    c) Very-low-density lipoproteins

    d) Chylomicrons
    d) Chylomicrons
  22. Of the sites listed below, only____________is not a destination for cholesterol in the body

    a) the liver, where cholesterol is made into bile acids

    b) the GI tract, where cholesterol is excreted through the feces

    c) the arterial walls, where cholesterol is deposited

    d) the liver, where cholesterol is used for vitamin A synthesis
    d) the liver, where cholesterol is used for vitamin A synthesis
  23. True/False (support your answer with an explanation)

    Low concentrations of low-density lipoproteins in the blood reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease
    -True
  24. The most important function of dietary lipids is to

    a) build and maintain muscle tissue

    b) provide energy

    c) regulate body processes

    d) protect body organs
    b) provide energy
  25. In the body, triglycerides

    a) insulate against temperature extremes

    b) protect organs against shock

    c) help the body use carbohydrate and fat

    d) do all of the above
    d) do all of the above
  26. True/False (support your answer with an explanation)

    Cholesterol in food is the most influential factor on blood cholesterol level
    False

    The quantity and type of dietary fats have a greater influence on serum cholesterol then does cholesterol in foods
  27. Of the strategies listed below, only__________is not an effective way to control the blood cholesterol level

    a) eating a lot of wheat bran

    b) reducing cholesterol intake

    c) eating less saturated fats

    d) maintaining an ideal body weight
    a) eating a lot of wheat bran
  28. How does a diet high in soluble fibre lower blood cholesterol levels?
    Soluble fibre binds to bile acids, preventing the body from reabsorbing them and forcing the liver to produce more, a process that requires the use of cholesterol
  29. How might as essential fatty acid deficieny develop? What would be the symptoms?
    A deficiency in essential fatty acids could develop in an infant fed a low-fat formula or skim milk, in burn victims who have suffered extensive fluid loss, in people with bowel restrictions who cannot absorb fat from their diet, and in hospital patients receiving very low fat diets or gastric tube feedings. The symptoms are "growth retardation, reproductive failure, skin lesions, kidney and liver disorders, and subtle neurological and visual problems
  30. Average fat consumption in Canada is about __________% of total energy intake

    a) 45-48

    b) 40-43

    c) 30-33

    d) 25-28
    c) 30-33
  31. The most dominant dietary fat that causes elevated blood cholesterol levels is

    a) cholesterol

    b) polyunsaturated fat

    c) monounsaturated fat

    d) saturated fat
    d) saturated fat
  32. What are the health risks associated with high fat intakes? Explain.
    High fat intakes contribute to heart disease, through increased blood cholesterol. Fat also contributes to obesity by inducing an excess calorie intake. Obesity leads to type 2 diabetes and hypertension. Fat may also be a factor in cancer
  33. Of the food servings listed below,_____________has the highest content of cholesterol

    a) three ounces of fish

    b) an egg

    c) three ounces of cheese

    d) three ounces of liver
    d) three ounces of liver
  34. The recommended ratio of omega-6 fatty to omega-3 fatty acids is

    a) 1:1

    b) 2:1 to 4:1

    c) 4:1 to 10:1

    d) 10:1 to 15:1
    c) 4:1 to 10:1
  35. True/False (support your answer with an explanation)

    It is recommended that all Canadians should reduce total fat intake to no more than 30% of energy intake
    False

    This recommendation does not apply to children under the age of 2
  36. The most reliable food sources of EPA and DHA are

    a) flaxseed and walnut oil

    b) nuts and seeds

    c) fatty fish

    d) eggs
    c) fatty fish
  37. Which of the following will help to decrease trans fat in the diet?

    a) consuming fish twice a week

    b) consuming a vegetarian diet

    c) avoiding eggs

    d) avoiding hydrogenated or hard margarine
    d) avoiding hydrogenated or hard margarine
  38. EPA and DHA

    a) are omega-3 fatty acids

    b) are not made in the body to a large extent

    c) may reduce blood clotting, thus reduce risk of cardiovascular disease

    d) all of the above
    d) all of the above
  39. The current suggested intake of EPA and DHA (combined) for Canadians is

    a) 1 gram of fish oil daily

    b) at least two servings of fatty fish per week

    c) consuming flax seed oil daily

    d) 5-10% of total kcals
    b) at least two servings of fatty fish per week
  40. Saturated fat is found in

    a) full fat dairy products

    b) beef and lamb

    c) coconut oil

    d) all of the above
    d) all of the above

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