biochemistry assignment 4 plus some extra

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biochemistry assignment 4 plus some extra
2014-11-09 15:48:31
biochemistry assignment

biochemistry assignment 4
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  1. do work
  2. reductive biosynthesis of a fatty acid (hydrocarbon chain) is done..
    electrons from NADPH
  3. hydrolysis reaction
    using water to separate monomers
  4. examples of compounds that has higher phosphate transfer potential compared to ATP?
    • 1) Creatine phosphate
    • 2) 1,3-Bisphosphoglycerate (1st step of stage 3)
    • 3) Phosphoenolpyruvate (in stage 3 just before pyruvate)
  5. The deficiency of which of the following vitamin may cause Scurvy (swollen and bleeding gums, subdermal hemorrhaging)?
    b) vitamin C
  6. study the other vitamins
  7. NADH is produced at which step of glycolysis?
    G3PDH catalyzed reaction
  8. study the reactants and enzymes of glycolysis
  9. which has more energy, fatty acids or carbohydrates?
    fatty acids
  10. Proteins that catalyze phosphorylation reactions are called
  11. The Rossmann foldis
    a NAD+binding motif
  12. The phosphorylation of Fructose 6-phosphate to Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate is endergonic or exergonic?
    is an endergonic reaction that takes place because it is coupled to the exergonic hydrolysis of ATP
  13. The step that commits the cell to metabolize glucose is catalyzed by
    b) phosphofructokinase
  14. The conversion of pyruvate to ethanol
    allows for recycling of NAD+
  15. Which of the following molecules is a common fate of pyruvate in aerobic metabolism?
    b) Acetyl coenzyme A
  16. Which of the following is the carrier of acyl group
  17. which is more stable, the keto or enol pyruvate?
    the keto is more stable
  18. look up structures of coenzymes of glycolysis, ie NAD+ is the 3 hexagon thing
  19. This kinetic stability of activated carriers allows to control the flow of free energy and reducing powerin metabolism.
  20. During glycolysis, how many pyruvate molecules as produced per glucose?
  21. lyase reaction
    breaks into two parts without using water
  22. dehydration reaction is an example of a
    lyase reaction
  23. Hexokinase regulation

    inhibited by what how?
    • Inhibition by glucose-6-P.  
    • When PFK is inhibited G-6-P increases  to shut off hexokinase.
  24. Phosphofructokinase (PFK)    
    • activated by AMP  
    • inhibited by ATP and low pH
  25. Pyruvate kinase 
    • Activated by F-1,6-BP 
    • Inhibited by ATP and alanine
  26. Muscle PFK is activated by ----- and----------
    Muscle PFK is activated by AMP and inhibited by ATP and low pH
  27. all steps in glycolysis are two way arrows except the steps catalyzed by...
    hexokinase, PFK, and PK
  28. low pH does what?
    inhibits glycolysis

    Increased lactic acid inhibits PFK
  29. Hexokinase vs glucokinase Km
    Glocokinase has a higher Km so lower affinity for substrate
  30. what happens with PK during high blood glucose levels?
    Insulin activates phosphoprotein phosphatase I, so dephosphorylated pyruvate kinase (more active)
  31. what happens with PK during low blood-glucose levels
    Glucagon activates Protein kinase A, phosphorylatd pyruvate kinase (less active)
  32. Glut 1,2,3 Km values compared to one another?
    • Glut 1 & 2 = low Km value
    • Glut 3= high Km value
  33. 1st step in which atp is used
    Glucose to glucose 6 phosphate (Hexokinase)
  34. 2nd step where ATP is used
    • Fructose 6 phosphate to fructose 1,6- biphosphate
    • (phosphofrutokinase)
  35. 1st step where ATP is produced
    • 1,3 bisphosphoglycerate to 3 phosphoglycerate
    • (phosphoglycerate kinase)
  36. second step where ATP is produced
    • Phosphoenolpyruvate to pyruvate (pyruvate
    • kinase)
  37. step where glycolysis is commited
    • Fructose 6 phosphate to fructose 1,6- biphosphate
    • (phosphofrutokinase)