PTA102 - Midterm 2

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Malakas
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288589
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PTA102 - Midterm 2
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2014-11-08 17:23:59
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PTA102 Midterm
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PTA102 - Midterm 2
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PTA102 - Midterm 2
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  1. Ataxia
    Ataxia- lack of coordinated movement

    ◦       Commonly associated with cerebellar dysfunction

    • ◦       Input regarding position of head, trunk and extremities- in from spinal
    • cord

    Compares resulting activity with intended motor command

    Happens rapidly- only involves few synapses

    • ◦       Cerebellum has no direct synapse with spinal cord- exerts influence
    • through action on interneurons of nuclei of the brainstem
  2. Hypotonicity
    Hypotonicity- decreased muscle tone

    ◦       Ipsilateral or bilateral

    ◦       Seen primarily in proximal muscle groups
  3. Asthenia
    Asthenia- generalized weakness
  4. Dysmetria
    Dysmetria- under or overestimation of movement toward a target
  5. Intention tremor
    Intention tremor- overshoot or undershoot during movement
  6. Dysdiadochokinesia
    Dysdiadochokinesia- inability to perform rapidly alternating movements

    • –  
    • No rhythm or consistency
  7. Scanning speech
    Scanning speech- cerebellar dysfunction

    • ◦       Words are pronounced slowly, 
    • without melody, tone or rhythm
  8. Gaze-evoked nystagmus
    Gaze-evoked nystagmus- non-voluntary rhythmic oscillation of the eye

    ◦       Unable to hold the gaze on an object
  9. Ocular dysmetria-
    Ocular dysmetria- seen when eyes are looking from one target to another
  10. Dysfunction of cerebellum
    ◦      Gait disturbance
    ◦      Major role in motor learning
    Dysfunction of cerebellum

    • ◦       Gait disturbance
    • Wide based and staggering
    • Without typical arm swing
    • Uneven step length
    • Inconsistent step widths
    • Feet lifted higher than necessary
    • Loss of adaptation to changes in terrain

    • ◦       Major role in motor learning
    • Anticipatory, feed-forward
  11. Deficits of higher brain function
    Cortex
    ◦       Highest development in humans
    • Deficits of higher brain function
    • Cortex

    • ◦       Highest development in humans
    • Language
    • Abstract thinking
    • Perception
    • Movement
    • Response to outside world
  12. Deficits of higher brain function
    Right hemisphere syndrome
    ◦       Inability to...

    ◦       Hemineglect
    Right hemisphere syndrome

    ◦       Inability to orient the body within external space

    • ◦       Hemineglect- does not respond to sensory stimuli on the left side of
    • the body
  13. Deficits of higher brain function
    Language
    • Deficits of higher brain function
    • Language
    • ◦       Speech- elementary capacity of the mechanical act of uttering works
    • using neuromuscular structures responsible for articulation
  14. Deficits of higher brain function
    Dysarthria
    • Deficits of higher brain function
    • Dysarthria- disturbance in articulation
  15. Deficits of higher brain function
    Anarthria
    • Deficits of higher brain function
    • Anarthria- lack of ability to produce speech
  16. Deficits of higher brain function
    Expressive aphasia
    • Deficits of higher brain function
    • Expressive aphasia- deficit in speech production and language output

    ◦       Garbled and inappropriate words
  17. Deficits of higher brain function
    Alexia
    • Deficits of higher brain function
    • Alexia- acquired inability to read
    • ◦       Prevent incoming visual information from reaching the angular gyrus for
    • linguistic interpretation
  18. Deficits of higher brain function
    Agraphia
    • Deficits of higher brain function
    • Agraphia- abnormal or clumsy writing
  19. Deficits in higher brain function
    Apraxia- 
    ◦       Ideomotor apraxia
    ◦       Ideational apraxia-
    • Deficits in higher brain function
    • Apraxia- disorder of skilled purposeful movement

    ◦       Ideomotor apraxia- inability to carry out a motor act on verbal command

    • ◦       Ideational apraxia- failure to perform sequential act- even though each
    • part of the act is performed individually
  20. Deficits in higher brain function
    Agnosia
    • Deficits in higher brain function
    • Agnosia- inability to recognize an object
  21. Deficits of higher brain function
    Cortex subdivisions
    ◦       Frontal lobe
    ◦       Problems
    • Deficits of higher brain function
    • Cortex subdivisions
    • ◦       Frontal lobe
    • Largest single area of the brain
    • Highest levels of cognitive function
    • Control of emotion
    • Behavior
    • Personality
    • ◦       Problems- lack of judgment, consequences, withdrawal and irritability,
    • apathy and lack of inhibition

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