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What are the components of a betweensubjects design?
 Making comparisons between 2 or more groups (usually assign subjects to a group)
 Need for equivalent groups (clarify the effect of the IV)

What are possible methods of creating equivalent groups?
 Random Assignment
 Block Randomization
 Matching Strategy

What are the components of random assignment?
 Method for creating equivalent groups
 Once subjects are selected, there's an equal chance of being assigned
 Evenly distributed individual differences
 Differences between groups are a result of IV, not EV

What are the components of block randomization?
 Method for creating equivalent groups
 Defines order of assignment
 Groups end up with equal numbers

What are the components of matching strategy?
 Method for creating equivalent groups
 Ensures that groups are equivalent on the factor you're concerned about
 Subjects are matched on relevant factor (matching variable)
 Once matched, then randomly assigned

What are the components of a withinsubject design?
 Making comparisons by looking at individuals across multiple conditions
 Comparisons within subjects
 Repeated measures design
 Rather than recruit different groups, every subject experiences each of the conditions

What are the advantages and disadvantages of a withinsubject design?
 Advantage: groups are equivalent because there's only one group
 Disadvantages: sequence effects (progressive effects and carryover effects)

What are the components of sequence effects?
Once a participant has completed the first part of a study, the experience or altered circumstances could influence performance in later parts of the study

What are the components of progressive effects?
Sometimes repeated trials produce gradual fatigue or boredom, and performance gradually declines from trial to trial

What are the components of carryover effects?
In a study with 2 basic conditions, experiencing the first condition before the second might affect the person much differently than experiencing the second before the first

What are the possible methods of controlling sequence effects?
Counterbalancing

What are the two general categories of counterbalancing?
 Testing once per condition
 Testing more than once per condition

What are the components of counterbalancing when testing once per condition?
 Complete Counterbalancing
 Partial Counterbalancing

What are the components of complete counterbalancing?
 Every possible sequence will be used at least once
 The total number of sequences needed can be determined by calculating X! (X factorial, where X is the number of conditions)
 Subjects in this study would then be randomly assigned to a sequence

What might be an issue with complete counterbalancing?
As the number of levels of the IV increases, the possible sequences needed increase dramatically

What are the components of partial counterbalancing?
 It can be accomplished by sampling from the complete set of all possible orders
 Or by randomizing the order of conditions for each subject (balanced Latin Square)

What is the Latin Square Strategy?
 Type of partial counterbalancing
 Subset of possible sequences
 2 things are true:
 every condition occurs equally often in each position
 every condition precedes an follows every other condition exactly once
 Allows even distribution of sequence effects

What are the components of counterbalancing when testing more than once per condition?
 Reverse Counterbalancing
 Block Randomization

What are the components of reverse counterbalancing?
 The experimenter presents the conditions in one order, and then presents them again in the reverse order
 If the researcher wants the participant to perform the task more than once, this sequence could be repeated as many times as necessary

What is a disadvantage of reverse counterbalancing?
There's a possibility that participants can predict what is coming next, especially if the reversals occur several times

What are the components of block randomization?
 The basic rule is that every condition must occur once before any condition can be repeated
 Within each block, the order of conditions is randomized
 This strategy eliminates the possibility that participants can predict what is coming next

What is a crosssectional study?
 Takes a betweensubjects approach
 A design in which age is the IV and different groups of people are tested; each group is of a different group

What is a longitudinal study?
 Takes a withinsubject/repeatedmeasures approach
 Age is the IV
 A single group of subjects is studied over time

What is a potentially serious difficulty with crosssectional studies?
Cohort effects

What are cohort effects?
 A cohort is a group of people born at the same time
 Cohort effects can reduce the internal validity of crosssectional studies because differences between groups could result from the effects of growing up in different historical eras

What is a potential problem with longitudinal studies?
Attrition

What is attrition?
 A threat to the internal validity of a study
 Occurs when participants fail to complete a study
 Those finishing the study may not be equivalent to those who started it

What is a cohort sequential design?
 In such a study, a group of subjects is selected and retested over time
 Different cohorts are continually being retested

What are the 2 types of bias in experiments?
 Experimenter Bias
 Participant/Subject Bias

What can experimental bias be influenced by?
 Knowing the hypotheses
 Knowing the group membership

What are research protocols?
 A detailed description of the sequence of events in a research session
 Used by an experimenter to ensure uniformity of treatment of research participants

What are the solutions for experimenter bias?
 Experimenter blindness
 Standardized procedures

What are the components of experimenter bias?
 Double blind procedure
 Neither the experimenter nor the participants are told the hypotheses and information on group membership

What are the components of standardized procedures?
Treat each subject the same way by following the script

What can influence participant/subject bias?
 Hawthorne effect
 Demand characteristics
 Social desirability (evaluation apprehension)

What is the Hawthorne effect?
A form of participant bias in which a participant's behavior is influenced by the mere knowledge of being in an experiment and therefore important to the experimenter

What are demand characteristics?
Features of the experimental design or procedure that increases the chances that participants will detect the true purpose of the study

What is social desirability bias?
 A type of response bias in survey research
 Occurs when people respond to a question by trying to put themselves in a favorable light

What is evaluation apprehension?
A form of anxiety experienced by participants that leads them to behave so as to evaluated positively by the experimenter

What are solutions to participant bias?
 Placebo control group
 Manipulation check
 Field research

What is a manipulation check?
 In debriefing, a procedure to determine if subjects were aware of a deception experiment's true purpose
 Also a procedure that determines if systematic manipulation have the intended effect on participants

What is field research?
Research that occurs in any location other than a scientific laboratory

What are single factor designs?
 Experimental designs with a single independent variable
 Composed of four basic research designs (independent groups, matched groups, nonequivalent groups / ex post facto, repeated measures)

What does an independent groups design consist of?
 A betweensubjects design
 Manipulated IV
 At least 2 groups to which subjects are randomly assigned

What does a matched groups design consist of?
 Betweensubjects design
 Manipulated IV
 At least 2 groups of participants
 Subjects are matched on some variable assumed to affect the outcome
 Random assignment

What does a nonequivalent groups / ex post facto design consist of?
 Betweensubjects design
 At least 2 groups of participants
 Uses a subject variable
 Creates nonequivalent groups

What does a repeated measures design consist of?
 Withinsubjects design
 Participants are tested in each of the experiment's conditions
 Fewer participants
 More sensitive to small differences between means
 Typically uses counterbalancing to control for sequence effects

What should be something to look out for in an independent groups design?
Outlier  in a data set, a data point so deviant from the remaining points that the researcher believes it cannot reflect reasonable behavior and its inclusion will distort the result; often considered a score more than three standard deviations from the mean

What is the defining feature of a twolevel independent group design?
Random assignment of participants to groups

What are the important control procedures that can be used to minimize human error and bias?
 Extensive training for researchers
 Double blind procedures
 Interobserver reliability

What is interobserver reliability?
The degree of agreement between two or more observers of the same event

When do researchers often use twolevel matched group design?
 Small number of subjects
 They're concerned that some attribute of these subjects could affect the outcome
 They have a good way of measuring that attribute

What is a methodological concern in ex post facto designs?
External validity  the extent to which the findings of a study generalize to other populations, other settings, and other times

What are the methods used to analyze singlefactor, twolevel designs?
 Nonparametric tests
 ttests

What are nonparametric tests?
 A test for homogeneity of variance
 It can be used if the standard deviation of one group is significantly larger than the standard deviation of the other group
 Common example: MannWhitney U test

What are the two varieties of ttests for comparing two sets of scores?
 Independent samples ttest
 Dependent samples ttest

Which designs should use the independent samples ttest?
 Independent groups design
 Ex post facto design

Which designs should use the dependent samples ttest?
 Matched groups design
 Repeatedmeasures design

What is an advantage to singlefactor multilevel designs?
Nonlinear effects  outcomes that do not form a straight line when graphed

What are the three choices in deciding how to present the data?
 Sentence form (can make for tedious reading as amount of data increases)
 Table of results
 Graph

What are the types of graphs and when is it appropriate to use them?
 If continuous variable: line graph preferred; bar graph acceptable
 If discrete variable: use a bar graph; line graph is inappropriate

How should singlefactor, multilevel designs be analyzed?
OneWay Analysis of Variance (OneWay ANOVA)

What is required to determine precisely where the significance lies in an ANOVA test?
Post hoc analysis

Which designs should use the oneway ANOVA for independent groups?
 Multilevel independent groups design
 Multilevel ex post facto design

Which designs should use the oneway ANOVA for repeated measures?
 Multilevel matched groups design
 Multilevel repeatedmeasures design

Which control groups are the most informative when used in the context of multilevel experimental designs?
 Placebo Control Group Designs
 Wait List Control Group Designs
 Yoked Control Group Designs

What kind of design would a study with a placebo control group use?
 If subjects are randomly assigned to groups: Independent groups, singlefactor, multilevel design
 If subjects were first matched on some variable: Matched groups, singlefactor, multilevel design

What kind of design would a study with a waiting list control group use?
Independent groups, singlefactor, multilevel design

What kind of design would a study with a yoked control group use?
Matched groups, singlefactor, multilevel design

What is a yoked control group?
Control group in which the treatment given a member of the control group is matched exactly with the treatment given a member of the experimental group

What is a factorial design?
Involves any study with more than one IV

What are the two results that can occur in factorial studies?

What are main effects?
 The overall effect of a single IV
 The difference between the means of the levels of any one IV
 Involves combining all of the data for each of the levels of that factor
 Can be seen using a factorial matrix

What are interactions?
 In a factorial design, occurs when the effect of one IV depends on the level of another IV
 Can be seen using a line graph (parallel lines = no interaction; non parallel lines = interaction)

What are the components of a mixed factorial design?
 At least one variable must be tested between subjects and manipulated
 At least one variable must be tested within subjects

What are the components of a P x E design?
 All betweensubject IV
 Some IV are manipulated variables and some are subject variables

What are the components of a mixed P x E factorial design?
 All betweensubject IV
 Some IV are manipulated variables and some are subject variables
 Includes both betweensubjects and withinsubjects factor
 The "E" (environment) is a withinsubjects variable

