A&P 1 exam 3 (part 4)

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A&P 1 exam 3 (part 4)
2014-11-09 14:53:43
anatomy physiology fall 2014

Nervous System Introduction Fall 2014
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  1. 2 parts of nervous system
    • sensory function
    • motor function
  2. collection of information, inputs
    sensory function
  3. response to information, outputs
    motor inputs
  4. 2 body regions of nervous system
    • somatic
    • visceral
  5. include parts derived from somites, somatic mesoderm and ectoderm
    somatic body region
  6. derived from splanchnic mesoderm or endoderm
  7. get from skin, special sense organs and propial reception
    SS (somatic sensory)
  8. skeletal muscle output
    somatic motor (SM)
  9. from gut (hunger, nausea, taste)
    visceral sensory (VS)
  10. output to smooth muscle and ALL glandular secreation
    visceral motor (VM)
  11. built out of cells
    neural pathways
  12. to move info over a distance use?
  13. cell that does job of nervous system
  14. structure of neuron includes?
    • cell body
    • cell processes
  15. extensions coming out of cell body
    dendrites and axon
  16. info is passed to neuron via this
  17. info is sent to end of____
  18. dendrites deal with ____ axon deals with ____
    • input
    • output
  19. neurons conduct a ___ ___ aka ___ ___
    • nervous impulse
    • action potential
  20. action potential is a response by conducting an action potential
  21. presence of neurotransmitter in synapse will either
    excite or inhibit 2nd cell causing it to turn on and off
  22. where is directionality important?
    in a synapse, controlling from point A to B
  23. being able to control the direction from point A to point B
    directionality of info
  24. what acts as stimulus for 2nd cell
  25. needed to initiate process
  26. detects if stimulus is present/not present
  27. generates response
  28. build neural pathway
  29. 4 components to a functioning neural pathway?
    • stimulus
    • receptor
    • effector
    • neuron
  30. simplest neural pathway that can be put together?
    single neuron
  31. reflex arc consists of ?
    3 neuron pathways
  32. 3 neuron pathways?
    • sensory neuron
    • motor neuron
    • association neuron(interneuron)
  33. key to neuron pathway?
    association neuron
  34. functions of association neuron?
    • provides behavioral complexity
    • get same response with stimulus
    • differentiates so you get varied responses by integrating sensory info
  35. when is association neuron located?
    • brain
    • spinal cord
  36. sensory neuron extends into ?
  37. motor neuron extends into
    CNS to get info
  38. includes brain and spinal cord
  39. includes everything outside of the CNS
  40. designed differently, based on brain or spinal cord
  41. PNS is split into?
    afferent and efferent
  42. in PNS motor neuron is with ____ and sensory neuron is with ____
    • afferent
    • efferent
  43. CNS is found between?
    afferent and efferent
  44. afferent?
    SS and VS
  45. efferent is?
    VM and SM
  46. visceral motor is ___, with 2 parts
  47. 2 components of automatic VM
    parasympathetic and sympathetic
  48. control goes back and forth depending on level of activity
    btwn parasympathetic and sympathetic
  49. means calm, sitting
  50. fight or flight response, activity
  51. respiration goes up during?
  52. 2 basic types of cells?
    • neurons
    • supporting cells
  53. functional cells in nervous system associated with sending and processing information
  54. have nothing to do with transporting of info, help neurons do their job
    supporting cells
  55. cells of nervous system origins?
    neural tube and neural crest
  56. production of proteins
  57. RER and ribosomes, produce neurotransmitters
    nissl substance
  58. bundles of microfilaments located and associated with processes attached to cell body, gives support
  59. processes associated with motor neurons
    • dendrites
    • axons
  60. shorter than axon
  61. info flows toward cell body in ___
  62. multiple dendrites?
    multipolar neurons
  63. ____ are output side, info goes out of cell body, away
  64. difference btwn dendrites and axons
    • dendrites- multiple
    • axon- single
  65. destination of axons?
    one specific location
  66. relatively long and can run from your spinal chord to toe
  67. conducts the action potential or nervous impulse
  68. action potentials originate here and move away from cell body
    axon hillock
  69. shape of axon hillock
  70. axon turns into these
  71. action potential goes along each branch, communicating with multiple cells
  72. telodendria have
    terminal ramifications
  73. part of neuron that forms synapse with next cell in neural pathway, very end of telodendria
    terminal bouton
  74. most common type of neuron
    motor neuron
  75. brings in information
    sensory neuron
  76. only has a single cell process located off to side of cell body, known as unipolar neurons
    sensory neuron
  77. 2 parts of sensory neuron?
    • peripheral process
    • central process
  78. info flows towards cell body
    peripheral process
  79. 2nd part, info flows away from cell body and is a short process
    central process
  80. central process relays
    sensory info into CNS (spinal cord)
  81. muscle fibers =
    muscle cells
  82. nerve fiber does not equal
    nerve cell
  83. long, process of neuron
  84. fibers will either be
    axons or peripheral process
  85. organs that contain bundles of nerve fibers and connective and vascular tissue
  86. typical structure of synapse of neuron
    • axon terminal bouton
    • synaptic cleft
    • dendrite
  87. neurotransmitters released here, space between 2 cells
    synaptic cleft
  88. from 2nd cell where neurotransmitters go to
  89. could bypass a step and effect information process
  90. synapse determines in nervous system which way info goes
  91. function of synapse
  92. info can only pass through a synapse in
    one direction
  93. in nervous system everything
    has a place
  94. grouped into collections
    cell body groupings
  95. collection of cell bodies in spinal cord
    horn or columns
  96. found in organization of brain
  97. found in spinal cord in CNS
    horns or columns
  98. 2 types of groupings of CNS
    • nuclei
    • horns or columns
  99. cell bodies in PNS
  100. located throughout the body and find cell bodies to neurons here
  101. 2 types of ganglia
    • dorsal root ganglia
    • ganglia or automatic nervous system
  102. located outside spinal cord and contains ALL cell bodies for ALL sensory neurons
    dorsal root ganglia
  103. supporting cell found in CNS
  104. 4 types of neuroglia ?
    • astrocytes
    • microglia
    • oligodendrocytes
    • ependymal cells
  105. found surrounding blood vessels in CNS, also contribute to blood brain barrier
  106. phagocytic cells that perform function of garbage collection system
  107. microglia?
    phagocytize bacteria and dead cells
  108. produces myelin and takes myelin and wraps in around fiber to from myelin sheet
  109. neural epithelial cells found at interphases and boundaries
    ependymal cells
  110. ependymal cells gave rise to
    all other cells of CNS including neurons and supporting cells
  111. supporting cells of PNS/
    • satellite cells
    • schwann cells
  112. form protective capsule around ganglia to limit damage
    satellite cells
  113. produce myelin sheeth in PNS
    schwann cells
  114. lipo protein sheeth
  115. spaces between adjacent segments of sheeth
    nodes of ranvier
  116. jumping from one node of ranvier to node of ranvier
  117. how action potential travels
  118. mechanism of contraction is different between
    myelinated and unmyelinated
  119. action potentials travel at _____ velocity in myelinated fiber vs unmyelinated fiber
  120. increase velocity by?
    increasing diameter of fiber, or temperature
  121. bundles of fiber, organs, and collection of fascicles
  122. mix of tissue types
  123. fibers organized
  124. tissue that wraps individual fibers and acts as insulator
  125. wraps fascicle of neurons
  126. wraps entire nerve
  127. some fiber are ____, some _____. Can be __ or __ neurons
    • myelinated
    • unmyelinated
    • sensory
    • motor