Biology- Chapter 22

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Biology- Chapter 22
2014-11-10 12:57:09
Principles Biology

Principles of biology- chapter 22
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  1. Which of the following statements best describes theories?
    They are supported by, and make sense of, many observations
  2. Catastrophism, meaning the regular occurrence of geological or meteorological disturbances (catastrophes), was Cuvier's attempt to explain the existence of
    The fossil record
  3. With what other idea of his time was Cuvier's theory of catastrophism most in conflict?
  4. What was the prevailing belief prior to the time of Lyell and Darwin?
    Earth is a few thousand years old, and populations are unchanging
  5. Which statement is most likely to be helpful in correcting this student's  misconception?
    Characteristics acquired during an organism's life are generally not passed on through genes
  6. Which of the following is the most accurate summary of Cuvier's consideration of fossil found in the vicinity of Paris?
    Extinction of species yes; evolution of new species no
  7. Lysenko's attempts in this regard were most in agreement with the ideas of
  8. Charles Darwin was the first person to propose
    A mechanism for evolution that was supported by evidence
  9. Which of these conditions should completely prevent the occurrence of natural selection in a population over time?
    All variation between individuals is due only to environmental factors
  10. Natural selection is based on all of the following except
    Individuals adapt to their environments and, thereby, evolve
  11. Which of the following represents an idea that Darwin learned from the writings of Thomas Malthus?
    Populations tend to increase at a faster rate than their food supply normally allows
  12. Given a population that contains genetic variation, what is the correct sequence of the following events, under the influence of natural selection?
    Well-adapted individuals leave more offspring than do poorly adapted individuals
  13. Which inferences about this population might be true?
    Two of the statements above are correct
  14. Which of the following must exist in a population before natural selection can act upon that population?
    Genetic variation among individuals
  15. Which of Darwin's ideas has the strongest connection to Darwin having read Malthus's essay on human population growth?
    Struggle for existence
  16. If Darwin had been aware of genes, and of their typical mode of transmission to subsequent generations, with which statement would he most likely have been in agreement?
    If natural selection can change one gene's frequency in a population over the course of generations then, given enough time and enough genes, natural selection can cause sufficient genetic change to produce new species from old ones
  17. The role that humans play in artificial selection is to
    Choose which organisms breed, and which do not
  18. Currently, two extant elephant species (X and Y) are placed in the genus Loxodonta, and a third species (Z) is placed in the genus Elephas. Thus, which statement should be true?
    Species X and Y share a greater number of homologies with each other than either does with species Z
  19. The rise of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) can be considered to be an example of artificial selection because
    Humans synthesize methicillin and create environments in which bacteria frequently come into contact with methicillin
  20. If a population of algae-eaters experiences predation pressure from pike-cichlids, which of the following is least likely to be observed in the algae-eater population over the course of many generations?
    Selection for larger female algae-eaters, bearing broods composed of more, and larger, young
  21. Which of these would have been required for this pest eradication effort to be successful in the long run?
    None of the individual insects should have possessed genomes that made them resistant to DDT
  22. If the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus experiences a cost for maintaining one or more antibiotic resistance genes, then what should happen in environments from which antibiotics are missing?
    These bacteria should be outcompeted and replaced by bacteria that have lost these genes
  23. Of the following anatomical structures, which is homologous to the bones in the wing of a bird?
    Bones in the flipper of a whale
  24. If two modern organisms are distantly related in an evolutionary sense, then one should expect that
    They should share fewer homologous structures than two more closely related organisms
  25. How do biologists interpret these similarities?
    Two of the statements above are correct
  26. How can natural selection account for these losses?
    Under particular circumstances that persisted for long periods, each of these structures presented greater costs than benefits
  27. Which of the following pieces of evidence most strongly supports the common origin of all life on Earth?
    All organisms use essentially the same genetic code
  28. Logically, which of these should cast the most doubt on the relationships depicted by an evolutionary tree?
    Relationships between DNA sequences among the species did not match relationships between skeletal patterns
  29. Which of the following statements most detracts from the claim that the human appendix is a completely vestigial organ?
    The appendix has a substantial amount of defensive lymphatic tissue
  30. Which information would best help distinguish between an explanation based on homology versus one based on convergent evolution?
    The two species share many proteins in common, and the nucleotide sequences that code for these proteins are almost identical
  31. The dorsal fins and tails of ichthyosaurs and fish are
    Two of the responses above are correct
  32. What term best describes the relationship of the bones in the forelimbs of penguins and seals, and what term best describes the flippers of penguins and seals?
    Homologous; analogous
  33. What must be true of any organ that is described as vestigial?
    It must be homologous to some feature in an ancestor
  34. What is true of pseudogenes?
    They are vestigial genes
  35. It has been observed that organisms on islands are different from, but closely related to, similar forms found on the nearest continent. This is taken as evidence that
    Island forms and mainland forms descended from common ancestors
  36. If one wanted to find the largest number of endemic species, one should visit which of the following geological features (assuming each has existed for several millions of years)?
    An isolated ocean island in the tropics
  37. A high degree of endemism is most likely in environments that are
    Isolated and heterogeneous
  38. If x indicates the location of fossils of two closely related species, then fossils of their most-recent common ancestor are most likely to occur in which stratum?
  39. If x indicates the fossils of two closely related species, neither of which is extinct, then their remains may be found in how many of these strata?
    Two strata
  40. Which of the following is the most accurate phylogenetic tree?
  41. How many separate species, both extant and extinct, are depicted in this tree?
  42. According to this tree, what percent of the species seem to be extant (in other words, not extinct)?
  43. Which of the five common ancestors, labeled V-Z, has given rise to the greatest number of species, both extant and extinct?
    Both X and Y can be considered to have given rise to the greatest number of extant and extinct species
  44. Which of the five common ancestors, labeled V-Z, has been least successful in terms of the percent of its derived species that are extant?
  45. Which of the five common ancestors, labeled V-Z, has been most successful in terms of the percent of its derived species that are extant?
  46. Which pair would probably have agreed with the process that is depicted by this tree?
    Lamarck and Wallace
  47. Evolutionary trees such as this are properly understood by scientists to be
  48. If the six ground finch species have evolved most recently, then which of these is the most logical prediction?
    Their genomes should be more similar to each other than are the genomes of the five tree finch species
  49. Based on this finding, it is reasonable to conclude that the vegetarian finch
    Is no more closely related to the tree finches than it is to the ground finches, despite its classification
  50. Thus, if classification is to reflect evolutionary relationships, the vegetarian finch should
    Be placed in its own genus
  51. Which of the following is not an observation or inference on which natural selection is based?
    Poorly adapted individuals never produce offspring
  52. Which of the following observations helped Darwin shape his concept of descent with modification?
    South American temperate plants are more similar to the tropical plants of South America than to the temperate plants of Europe
  53. How can this result best be explained?
    Some drug- resistant bacteria were present at the start of treatment, and natural selection increased their frequency
  54. Which of the following is the most likely explanation for these data?
    Natural selection in an aquatic environment resulted in significant changes to whale forelimb anatomy
  55. DNA sequences in many human genes are very similar to the sequences of corresponding genes in chimpanzees. The most likely explanation for this result is that
    Humans and chimpanzees share a relatively recent common ancestor