Arrival of an action potential at an axonal terminals
results in the release of
The contraction of smooth and cardiac muscle is
controlled by the ________ division of the peripheral nervous system
For an action potential to be generated, a minimum
membrane voltage, or ________ , must be reached
Shifting the membrane potential of a neuron from
negative to positive, due to inward movement of sodium ions, is referred to as
the resting membrane potential in a neuron, the ________ must be activated
Research involving graded potentials has shown that a
neuron receiving many incoming signals from other neurons experiences a larger
change in membrane potential than from one incoming impulse alone. This phenomenon is known as ________
The ________ controls many functions in the body,
including regulating body temperature and hunger drive
Cells in nerve tissue that support and protect neurons
are ________ cells
Given a particular neuron, an action potential either
occurs or does not occur, depending on the strength of the stimulus; therefore,
the action potential is described as ________
all or none
Cranial nerves and spinal nerves are part of the
________ nervous system
Bacterial and viral infections of the brain are rare
because of the protective nature of the ________
Since the central nervous system is so important to
the proper functioning of the body, the brain is protected by the ________ and
the spinal cord is protected by the ________
left and right cerebral hemispheres are interconnected by nerve tract network
Recordings of the brain's activities can be made using
a(n) ________; this information is used to study the functioning of the brain
memory is associated with the ________ , while long-term memory is associated
with changes in the ________
limbic system, cerebral cortex
Following their production in the seminiferous
tubules, immature sperm cells are transferred to the ________.
Since the pH of the female vagina is not suitable for
the survival of sperm, secretions from the ________ gland of the male are a
necessary component of semen to raise the pH
Sperm and egg cells contain half or the ________
number of chromosomes found in body cells.
FHS in males targets ________ cells, although the
function of the hormone is not fully understood
The head of a sperm is covered by the ________ which
contains enzymes that help penetrate the layers of cells surrounding the egg
In humans, fertilization occurs in the ________.
A common tissue between the fetus and the endometrium
that provides nourishment to the developing fetus is the ________.
The muscular layer of the uterus that provides the
force necessary to expel the baby during birth is the ________.
The vagina meets the uterus at the ________.
The regular pattern by which oocytes grow, mature, and
are released from the ovary is known as the ________.
Ovulation occurs during the ________ stage of the
If pregnancy occurs, a layer of tissue associated with
the embryo secretes the hormone ________, which maintains the activity of the
corpus luteum in the ovaries of the mother
As a primary oocyte develops within a follicle of the
ovary, it is nourished by ________ cells
An extensive bacterial infection of the female
reproductive tract is known as ________; it is the most common cause of female
pelvic inflammatory disease
A condition in females that occurs when endometrial
tissue moves through the oviducts and adheres to the ovaries or other organs in
the abdominal cavity is ________
Nonsteroid hormones require a ________ on the cell
surface to communicate with cells
Steroid hormones depend on receptors inside the cell
because these hormones are ________.
________ cells function in both the nervous and
Nonsteroid hormones are ________ acting than steroid
hormones because they activate enzyme cascades within a cell
Hormones important in maintaining homeostasis are
generally part of a ________ feedback loop
Neuroendocrine cells are located in the ________ and
hypothalamus and adrenal medulla
Releasing and inhibiting hormones from the
hypothalamus are carried to the anterior pituitary gland by the ________.
pituitary portal system
Hormones from the anterior pituitary gland are
secreted in response to the presence of ________ from the hypothalamus
The endocrine cells of the pancreas are located in
small groupings throughout the organ known as the ________
islets of Langerhans
A student just finished a delicious breakfast of
pancakes with syrup, orange juice, and Danish pastries. Because his blood sugar
level has increased, the pancreas will secrete ________.
Although most of the estrogen and testosterone
produced in the human body is made by the ovaries and testes respectively,
small amounts of these hormones are also produced by the ________.
The effect of parathyroid hormone is to ________ blood
Lymphocytes mature to T cells in the ________.
The pineal gland secretes ________, also known as the
"hormone of darkness."
Diabetes type _____ occurs when the pancreas cannot
produce enough insulin
________ neurons transmit information about stimuli,
in the form of electrical impulses, to integration centers
When an individual first gets dressed, he is conscious
of the clothing on his body. A short
time later, however, he is no longer aware of it. This is known as ________.
Olfactory receptor cells have a dendritic end that
branches into several ________.
Pain caused by a heart attack is often felt in the
left shoulder and left arm. This phenomenon is known as ________ pain
________ often times is not even detected until
seconds or even minutes after an injury; this is due to activation of
chemically sensitive pain receptors
The passageway that extends from the middle ear to the
throat is the ________; this structure equalizes air pressure in the middle ear
with atmospheric pressure
The structure of the cochlea that converts pressure
waves to nerve impulses is the ________; it is composed of hair cells and a
organ of Corti
The movement of tiny, bonelike crystals called
________, located in the vestibule of the vestibular apparatus, is important in
determining the position of the head
It is common for people who are traveling in cars or
planes to experience an unpleasant sensation known as ________, which is due to
conflicting sensory inputs from receptors located in muscles and tendons, the
eyes, and the vestibular apparatus
The middle layer of tissue in the back of the eye that
consists of pigmented cells and blood vessels is the ________.
The ________ regulates the amount of light entering
A student is staring directly at a bird outside the
classroom window. The image of the bird is focused on the ________ of the
The two structures of the eye that focus light are the
________ and ________.
Light causes the pigment rhodopsin to ________, which
in turn causes sodium channels on the photoreceptor cell to close
Vision in dim light is due to the activity of ________