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  1. Arrival of an action potential at an axonal terminals
    results in the release of
  2. The contraction of smooth and cardiac muscle is
    controlled by the ________ division of the peripheral nervous system
  3. For an action potential to be generated, a minimum
    membrane voltage, or ________ , must be reached
  4. Shifting the membrane potential of a neuron from
    negative to positive, due to inward movement of sodium ions, is referred to as
  5. To re-establish
    the resting membrane potential in a neuron, the ________ must be activated
    sodium-potassium pump
  6. Research involving graded potentials has shown that a
    neuron receiving many incoming signals from other neurons experiences a larger
    change in membrane potential than from one incoming impulse alone.  This phenomenon is known as ________
  7. The ________ controls many functions in the body,
    including regulating body temperature and hunger drive
  8. Cells in nerve tissue that support and protect neurons
    are ________ cells
  9. Given a particular neuron, an action potential either
    occurs or does not occur, depending on the strength of the stimulus; therefore,
    the action potential is described as ________
    all or none
  10. Cranial nerves and spinal nerves are part of the
    ________ nervous system
  11. Bacterial and viral infections of the brain are rare
    because of the protective nature of the ________
    blood-brain barrier
  12. Since the central nervous system is so important to
    the proper functioning of the body, the brain is protected by the ________ and
    the spinal cord is protected by the ________
    skull, vertebrae
  13. The
    left and right cerebral hemispheres are interconnected by nerve tract network
    called the

    corpus callosum
  14. Recordings of the brain's activities can be made using
    a(n) ________; this information is used to study the functioning of the brain
  15. Short-term
    memory is associated with the ________ , while long-term memory is associated
    with changes in the ________
    limbic system, cerebral cortex
  16. Following their production in the seminiferous
    tubules, immature sperm cells are transferred to the ________.
  17. Since the pH of the female vagina is not suitable for
    the survival of sperm, secretions from the ________ gland of the male are a
    necessary component of semen to raise the pH
  18. Sperm and egg cells contain half or the ________
    number of chromosomes found in body cells.
  19. FHS in males targets ________ cells, although the
    function of the hormone is not fully understood
  20. The head of a sperm is covered by the ________ which
    contains enzymes that help penetrate the layers of cells surrounding the egg
  21. In humans, fertilization occurs in the ________.
  22. A common tissue between the fetus and the endometrium
    that provides nourishment to the developing fetus is the ________.
  23. The muscular layer of the uterus that provides the
    force necessary to expel the baby during birth is the ________.
  24. The vagina meets the uterus at the ________.
  25. The regular pattern by which oocytes grow, mature, and
    are released from the ovary is known as the ________.
    ovarian cycle
  26. Ovulation occurs during the ________ stage of the
    menstrual cycle
  27. If pregnancy occurs, a layer of tissue associated with
    the embryo secretes the hormone ________, which maintains the activity of the
    corpus luteum in the ovaries of the mother
  28. As a primary oocyte develops within a follicle of the
    ovary, it is nourished by ________ cells
  29. An extensive bacterial infection of the female
    reproductive tract is known as ________; it is the most common cause of female
    pelvic inflammatory disease
  30. A condition in females that occurs when endometrial
    tissue moves through the oviducts and adheres to the ovaries or other organs in
    the abdominal cavity is ________
  31. Nonsteroid hormones require a ________ on the cell
    surface to communicate with cells
  32. Steroid hormones depend on receptors inside the cell
    because these hormones are ________.
  33. ________ cells function in both the nervous and
    endocrine systems
  34. Nonsteroid hormones are ________ acting than steroid
    hormones because they activate enzyme cascades within a cell
  35. Hormones important in maintaining homeostasis are
    generally part of a ________ feedback loop
  36. Neuroendocrine cells are located in the ________ and
    hypothalamus and adrenal medulla
  37. Releasing and inhibiting hormones from the
    hypothalamus are carried to the anterior pituitary gland by the ________.
    pituitary portal system
  38. Hormones from the anterior pituitary gland are
    secreted in response to the presence of ________ from the hypothalamus
    releasing hormones
  39. The endocrine cells of the pancreas are located in
    small groupings throughout the organ known as the ________
    islets of Langerhans
  40. A student just finished a delicious breakfast of
    pancakes with syrup, orange juice, and Danish pastries. Because his blood sugar
    level has increased, the pancreas will secrete ________.
  41. Although most of the estrogen and testosterone
    produced in the human body is made by the ovaries and testes respectively,
    small amounts of these hormones are also produced by the ________.
    adrenal cortex
  42. The effect of parathyroid hormone is to ________ blood
    calcium levels
  43. Lymphocytes mature to T cells in the ________.
  44. The pineal gland secretes ________, also known as the
    "hormone of darkness."
  45. Diabetes type _____ occurs when the pancreas cannot
    produce enough insulin
  46. ________ neurons transmit information about stimuli,
    in the form of electrical impulses, to integration centers
  47. When an individual first gets dressed, he is conscious
    of the clothing on his body.  A short
    time later, however, he is no longer aware of it.  This is known as ________.
    receptor adaptation
  48. Olfactory receptor cells have a dendritic end that
    branches into several ________.
    olfactory hairs
  49. Pain caused by a heart attack is often felt in the
    left shoulder and left arm. This phenomenon is known as ________ pain
  50. ________ often times is not even detected until
    seconds or even minutes after an injury; this is due to activation of
    chemically sensitive pain receptors
    Slow pain
  51. The passageway that extends from the middle ear to the
    throat is the ________; this structure equalizes air pressure in the middle ear
    with atmospheric pressure
    eustachian tube
  52. The structure of the cochlea that converts pressure
    waves to nerve impulses is the ________; it is composed of hair cells and a
    tectorial membrane
    organ of Corti
  53. The movement of tiny, bonelike crystals called
    ________, located in the vestibule of the vestibular apparatus, is important in
    determining the position of the head
  54. It is common for people who are traveling in cars or
    planes to experience an unpleasant sensation known as ________, which is due to
    conflicting sensory inputs from receptors located in muscles and tendons, the
    eyes, and the vestibular apparatus
    motion sickness
  55. The middle layer of tissue in the back of the eye that
    consists of pigmented cells and blood vessels is the ________.
  56. The ________ regulates the amount of light entering
    the eye
  57. A student is staring directly at a bird outside the
    classroom window. The image of the bird is focused on the ________ of the
    fovea centralis
  58. The two structures of the eye that focus light are the
    ________ and ________.
    cornea, lens
  59. Light causes the pigment rhodopsin to ________, which
    in turn causes sodium channels on the photoreceptor cell to close
    change shape
  60. Vision in dim light is due to the activity of ________
Card Set:
2014-11-10 00:35:28

Bio EX4
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